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BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr.

Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

PAVEMENT DESIGN:
Flexible Pavement Design
(ARAHAN TEKNIK JALAN 5/85
PINDAAN 2013)
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

INFORMATION NEEDED AS INPUT


FOR PAVEMENT DESIGN

(1) Types and volume of commercial vehicles for which


the pavement structure is designed
(2) Design life
(3) Sub-grade types and strength
(4) Types and properties of paving materials used
(5) Environment to which the pavement structure will
be exposed
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

Single Axle Tandem Axle Tridem Axle

Traffic Loading
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

4
 Lx 
   LS = 80kN, 8.16 tonne,
18,000 lb
 LS 

4 4
 1 .5  Lorry 9 tonnes  9 
  Car 1.5 tonne  
 8.16   8.16 
 0.00114  1.48

4
4  26 
 18   
   8.16 
 8 .16 
 103 .07
 23 .67 Bus 18 tonnes Trailer 26 tonnes
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

Climatic / Environmental Effect

////////////////////////////////
////////////////////////////
Seepage
from ///////////////////////////
highlands Water ponding

Seepage through Seepage through pavement


shoulder
Water content rises in subgrade
Subgrade looses strength and stability
If subgrade is too weak, pavement will fail
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

PAVEMENT DESIGN METHODOLOGY

 Based on TWO (2) strains which are critical to


pavement performance (Figure 1)
 Vertical strain, εz on top of the sub-grade
 Horizontal strain, εt at the bottom of the lowest
bound pavement course
 Remain within acceptable range by providing
appropriate types and thickness of materials.
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

Determination of Design Traffic

Equivalent Standard Axle Load (ESAL) – 80 kN

Based on commercial vehicles (CV)

Traffic data include:

•Number of CV during Year 1 of Design Period – expected year completion of


construction

•Vehicles Class and axle load distribution

•Directional and lane distribution factors

•Tyre characteristics and inflation pressure

•Traffic growth factors


BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

Axle configurations and corresponding load equivalent factor (LEF) – Table 1


BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

Design Procedure – Traffic category


BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

Properties of sub-grade
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

Properties of paving materials


BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

ARAHAN TEKNIK JALAN 5/85 2013

WORK EXAMPLE

Design a road pavement for a 2-lane highway with an average daily


traffic of 1350 vehicles, 16% of which are commercial vehicles with an
un-laden weight > 1.5 tons.
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

WORK EXAMPLE
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

WORK EXAMPLE
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

WORK EXAMPLE
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

WORK EXAMPLE
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin

WORK EXAMPLE
BFC 31082 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Mustafa Kamal bin Shamshuddin