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LVO

Low Visibility Operations


SPECIAL OPS
LVO- PREAMBLE

 The information contained in this briefing is for training


purposes only
 If any information contained herein conflicts with the
approved Airplane Flight Manual, the information in the
Airplane Flight Manual shall take precedence

 LVO = Low Visibility Operations


 AA = Air Asia India
 LVP = Low Visibility Procedures
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- REFERENCE

 Other references for study with this CBT and prior to


your LVO simulator session:

 AA OM(A) – 17.4.1- LVO (Refer applicable FOC)

 AA OM(D) – 2.1.9.3- LVO (Refer applicable FOC)


SPECIAL OPS
GENERAL CONCEPT: WHAT IS LVO?
Low Visibility Operations (LVO) consist in operating an aircraft in
low visibility conditions. The term LVO includes :
 Landing Category II (CAT 2),
 Landing Category III (CAT 3),
 Low Visibility Take-off (LVTO); and
 Low Visibility Taxi (LV TAXI)
Note: We are training for LVTO

The following weather conditions define Low Visibility Take-off:


1. Take off with less than RVR 400m

Weather limitations (visibility/RVR) applied for LVO are


called minima.
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- RVR DEFINITION

 Runway Visual Range (RVR) is the range over which a


pilot of an aircraft on the centreline of the runway can
see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating
the runway or identifying its centreline.

 Note: RVR is not the Slant Visual Range (SVR). SVR is


the range over which a pilot of an aircraft in the final
stages of approach or landing can see the markings or
the lights as described in RVR definition.
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- RVR DEFINITION
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- RVR MEASURMENT

 For LVO operations, the RVR measurements are


provided by a system of calibrated transmissometers
and account for the effects of ambient background light
and the intensity of runway lights.
 Transmissometers systems are strategically located to
provide RVR measurements associated with three basic
portions of a runway :
 The Touchdown Zone (TDZ).
 The Mid-runway Portion (MID).
 The Rollout Portion (RO) or stop end.
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- RVR REQUIREMENT FOR LVTO
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- RVR REQUIREMENT FOR LVTO

The touch-down zone RVR is always controlling. If reported and Relevant, the mid-
point and stop-end RVR are also controlling. The minimum RVR value for the mid- point
is 125 m or the RVR required for the touch-down zone if less , and 75 m for the stop-
end. For aeroplanes equipped with a stop-end (roll-out) guidance or control system,
the minimum RVR value for the mid-point is 75 m.
Note: “Relevant”, in this context, means that part of the runway used during the high
speed phase of the landing down to a speed of approximately 60 knots.

AirAsia shall not define relevant depending on runway length/aircraft stopping distance
unless approved by FSD,DGCA. Currently, we don’t have DGCA approval for the same.

Below 200 m all 3 RVRs (touch down, mid-point and stop end/roll out) are required for
LVTO.
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- PILOT EYE’S POSITION

The pilots must realize the importance of eye position


during low visibility operations
 A too low seat adjustment may greatly reduce the visual
segment when the eye reference position is lower than
intended, the already short visual segment is further
reduced by the cut-off angle of the glare shield or nose

A320 aircraft is equipped with an eye position indicating


device. The optimum eye position is obtained when the
pilot sees the red indicator ball covering the white ball
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- PILOT EYE’S POSITION

CORRECT EYE POSITION

LOW EYE POSITION


SPECIAL OPS
LVO- USE OF LANDING LIGHTS & STROBES

 Use of landing lights & strobes at night in low visibility


can be detrimental to the acquisition of visual references

 Reflected lights from water droplets or snow may


actually reduce visibility

 Landing lights & strobes would therefore not be used in


LVO weather conditions
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- TAXI HOLDING POSITION

 A taxi-holding position is established at each intersection


of a taxiway and the runway. The distance between the
holding position and the centreline of the runway is not
less than 90 m (greater if the runway elevation exceeds
700 m).
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- RUNWAY MARKS
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- TAXI-HOLDING POSITION MARKING
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- RUNWAY LIGHT ALS

Same spacing as side row


barrettes RUNWAY END LIGHTS
60m (red)
CENTRELINE LIGHTS
(variable)
RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTS
(variable whites)
TOUCHDOWN ZONE
LIGHTS (variable white) THRESHOLD LIGHTS
EXTENDED CENTRELINE LIGHTS
SIDE ROW LIGHTS spacing 3m max (green)
• RUNWAY
Intervals
TOUCHDOWN
RUNWAY of 30m
THRESHOLD
CENTRELINE
EDGE
ZONE
LIGHTS
LIGHTS
LIGHTS
LIGHTS
• On each side of centreline
•• RUNWAY
Variable
Along
From
At right
Variable END
threshold
full
angles
white
length
white toLIGHTS
from
to ofthe
arunway
threshold
900m
runway SIDE ROW BARRETTE
• Equal
to
point
axis spacing
900m from of extended
runway end
150m (red)
••• Right
Each
centrelineangle
< 3mbarrette
from30m toatthe
runway least
apart runway
edge
4m in
• axis
Alternate
Pairs
Outside of barrettes
runway
red and<< variable
3m3 lights
to
length
• •• Interval
Consist
Outside of
white from
threshold < 60m
red barrettes
the900m
runway to 300mlights CENTRELINE BARRETTE
•• Unidirectional
When a barrette white
300m is composed 30m
from runway end (variable white)
• •• May
Length
<
of be omitted
and the
3m tosources,
point runway
Unidirectional at
greenend
the intersection
longitudinal
lights are barrettes length 4m min.
•• Longitudinal
spacing
Minimum
Red
uniformly equal
6
fromwhite spacing
to touchdown
red lights
300m
spaced point btwn
to
at intervals
• Variable
pairs
Spaced of <
barrettes
3m apart 60m/30m CROSSBAR
light
of barrettes
runway
< 1.5m end
(variable white)
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- TAXIWAY LIGHTS

Taxiway edge
lights (blue)

Stop bars lights


(red)

Taxiway centerline
lights
(green and yellow)
SPECIAL OPS
LVTO- MEL REQUIRMENT

• Windshield wipers for both Pilots


• Window heat for all heated cockpit windows
• Anti-Skid system
• Thrust reverser for all engines
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- FLIGHT PREPARATION

 Review NOTAMS to make sure that the departure airport still


meets visual or non-visual LVTO requirements:
 Runway lighting;
 RVR equipment availability, etc.
 When the aircraft log book is available, confirm that no
write up during flights affects equipment required for
LVTO.
 Crew qualification and currency must be reviewed.
 Both pilots must be certified, qualified and recent.(NEXT
SLIDE)
SPECIAL OPS
LVTO- FLYING EXPERIENCE

The PIC and Co-Pilot should have gained


experience of 100 hours on type as released
PIC/Co-Pilot respectively before using LVTO
minima up to the limiting RVR.

Note: Training and Check for LVTO can be completed with type
rating or command upgrade simulator syllabus
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- AIRFIELD SPECIFICATION

 Departure Airfield: Regardless of the approach


available at the departure airfield, a take-off alternate
must be filed if the weather at the departure airfield is
below CAT I limits. Take-off alternate is Max distance of
380 NM. 60 minutes at the OEI cruising speed in ISA
conditions based on actual take-off weight.

 Destination Airfield: At or above the applicable


aerodrome minima for the planned time of arrival.

 Alternate Airfield: Verify that the alternate weather


above Cat I minima.
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- AT THE AIRCRAFT

 Briefing (For Low Visibility Procedure)


Over and above the normal T/O briefing, this must include
appropriate CAT II/ III holding points, taxiway lighting, taxi
speed, runway exits and all relevant information.

Note: Trainer to brief and provide copy of LVO checklist to


be used during the LVTO training and check
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- Low Visibility Taxi (LV Taxi)
 Taxi speed is 10kts or less.
 Be familiar with CAT II/III holding points and taxi routes. Request for
FOLLOW ME when in doubt.
 All checklist, flight control checks, copying of ATC clearances must
be performed while the aircraft is stationary.
 Do not use high intensity lights unless you are on the active runway.
 On line up for Takeoff, check runway heading using the ILS localizer
(yaw bar) and runway markings.
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- TAKE-OFF IN LOW VISIBILITY

 LVTO is a take-off performed with RVR less than 400 meters.

 The minimum take-off RVR for AAI A320 is 125 meters.

 Use MAX TAKEOFF THRUST (TOGA)

 Make full use of YAW BAR

 Commanders in the LEFT seat to perform


LVTO
SPECIAL OPS
LVO- REJECTED TAKE OFF

 If visual reference is lost below 100kts --- ABORT the


takeoff.
 Make full use of the centerline lights/markings to keep
the aircraft on the runway centerline.
 Use YAW BAR
 Centerline light:
– Alternate RED and white at 900m (3000ft) of runway
remaining.
– Continuous RED at 300m (1000ft) of runway
remaining
ANY QUESTIONS/COMMENTS?