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EAN UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF STUDIES IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS


INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

INTERCULTURAL NEGOTIATION STRATEGIES


GUIDE 1. CONCEPTUAL BASIC OF INTERCULTURAL NEGOTIATION STRATEGIES

AUTHORS
MARIO HERNAN JIMENEZ VALENZUELA
NELSON JAVIER CIPAGAUTA GONZALEZ
MARGARITA LOSADA DELGADO
JUAN SEBASTIAN BLANCO CASTIBLANCO

TUTOR
LEONARDO HOLGUÍN MUÑOZ

BOGOTÁ D.C., FEBRUARY 10th, 2019


Table of Contents

1. Tactics for distributive negotiation 5


2. Position adapted during the negotiation 6
3. How to confront Common pressure tactics 7
4. Common pressure tactics 8
5. Strategy 9
6. Types of strategy 10
7. Tactics vs Strategies 11
8. Conclusion 12
9. Bibliography 13
Image Table
1. Image 1 - Organized Strategies 9
2. Image 2 - Global Strategies 9
3. Image 3 - Distributive Strategies 10
4. Image 4 - Integrative Strategies 10

Table Index
1. Table 1 - Tactics For Distributive Negotiation 5
2. Table 2 - Position adapted during the negotiation 6
3. Table 3 - How to confront Common pressure tactics 7
4. Table 4 - Common pressure tactics 8
5. Table 5 - Tactics Vs Strategies 11
Introduction
The tactics and strategies for businesses are fundamental to understand how to act in any
situation that may arise in the middle of a commercial relationship with the counterpart of
the negotiation; therefore, understanding and knowing how to act in these situations is
essential to achieve progress in these agreements.

Therefore, the concepts that generate value in this process are presented and with a
valuation of the roll that each one of them plays in the development of a negotiation.
Guide 1. Conceptual Basic of Intercultural Negotiation
Strategies

Tactics For Distributive Negotiation


Table 1

I) Create Value To The


Objective, The Point Of Iv) Manipulation Of The
Iii) Modifying The
Resistance And The Ii) Handling Impressions Costs Of Delaying Or
Perceptions Of The
Costs Of Finalizing The From The Other Side Finalizing The
Other Side
Negotiations For The Negotiation
Other Side

Covering Activities
Indirect Aluation The negotiator presents 1. Plan an interruption
Where the negotiator many proposals, so that the action
indirectly receives other party finds it difficult 2. Create alliances
information about the to detect the elements that with third parties
background of the issue are important him The negotiator makes
in discussion Direct Action To Alter the results of the
Direct Assessment Impressions negotiation look less 3. Increase pressure
attractive and also on the other side, in
Where the negotiator The negotiator uses selective alters the cost to make
presentations in which he only relation to the
receives information it seem more increase in cost of
reveals the necessary elements
about the other party, that he wants the other side to expensive to achieve delaying or finalizing
about its negotiation know while reserving the the negotiation
objective and its breaking important ones for himself
point

Source: Own Elaboration


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Guide 1. Conceptual Basic of Intercultural Negotiation
Strategies

Table 2

Initial Offers

Positions Adopted During


The Negotiation Initial Stance
The distributive negotiators
need to understand the Initial Concessions
process to be able to adopt
a clear stance in the
negotiation process. Parts The Importance of the
of this process are: concessions

Final Offers
Source: Own Elaboration

6
Guide 1. Conceptual Basic of Intercultural Negotiation
Strategies

Table 3

How To Confront Common Pressure Tactics


When the negotiator identifies the tactic quickly, understands how it is and how it works, the best way to
respond to a tactic depends on the goals and context of the negotiation.
We find four main options for the negotiators, such as:

• Not responding to a threat is usually the best way to handle it


• Pretend that you didn’t hear it
Ignore Them
• Change the subject and get the other party involved in the topic
• Ask for a break and then change the subject

• Let the other side know that you understand their tactic and you know exactly what
Analize Them they are doing
• Recognize to the other party that they are a tough negotiator

This type of response could cause chaos, resentment and may be counterproductive,
Respond Equally
but it should not be ruled out as it might be necessary to move the negotiation

Get Closer To This technique is based on a theory that it is much harder to attack a friend than an
The Other Side enemy
Source: Own Elaboration

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Guide 1. Conceptual Basic of Intercultural Negotiation
Strategies

Table 4

Common Pressure Tactics


Good Police /
This tactic usually leads to concessions and negotiated agreements.
Bad Police
Low Ball / This tactic used by the negotiators means uses extreme offers that causes the other
High Ball party to reconsider its initial offer, or also to move away from the point of resistance.
The negotiator pretends that the negotiation is too important or that it has no
Pretend
importance for them.
Negotiators using this tactic to call for a proportionally lower concession which has
Probe
not been discussed previously in order to close the deal.
The negotiator threatens the other side with removing the offers and walking away
Whitedrawal
from the deal.
The negotiator applies pressure to the other side in order to make them agree to his
Intimidation
terms, by using emotions such as anger or fear.
Aggressive
The negotiator conducts itself in an aggressive manner to intimidate the other side.
Conduct
This tactic occurs when the negotiators overwhelms the other side with too much
Overwhelming information which makes it difficult to him to separate real and important facts from
distractions created to gain in the negotiation.
Source: Own Elaboration
8
Guide 1. Conceptual Basic of Intercultural Negotiation
Strategies

Strategy
It is a group of well-organized tactics in The strategy is reflected in every aspect of
order to fulfill a long-term goal or dream the company, such as the level of products,
Image 1 services, natural resources, market
penetration, cultural aspects, among others
Image 2

Source: https://vilmanunez.com/crear-
estrategia-de-contenidos/
Source:http://www.docorcomunicacion.es/
internacionalizacion.html

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Guide 1. Conceptual Basic of Intercultural Negotiation
Strategies

Types Of Strategy
Distributive Strategy Integrative Strategy
It is a competition where the parties act with It focuses on similarities, not differences
the objective of maximizing the individual and seeks to meet the needs of both parties
benefit seeking advantages over the in a negotiation, where a win-win concept is
counterpart and generating a win-lose created. Image 4
concept. Image 3

Source:http://economiassolidarias.unmsm.edu.pe/?q=tesis/co Source:https://eduardbeltran.com/2018/06/21/estrategias-de-negociacion-
operativismo-en-chile-una-estrategia-de-desarrollo integrativa-para-crear-valor-en-la-mesa-de-negociacion/
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Guide 1. Conceptual Basic of Intercultural Negotiation
Strategies

Table 5

Tactics Vs Strategies
They are the actions that are taken in order to carry out They are actions aimed at achieving the proposed
the strategies objectives

The measures that are used to counteract the competition


and to be able to propose better offers to meet the final You can group many tactics to achieve the goal
objectives of the negotiation

They help to propose methods to strengthen strategies Action plan for the market to ‘act’ in our favor

Tactics define if an aggressive, passive or balanced The strategy determines how the proposed model for
strategy is going to be used to face the negotiation negotiation will be presented

Tactics are activities that are related to the performance


of the market and help to determine the action plan to The strategies adapt depending on the objective pursued
follow

Source: Own Elaboration

11
Conclusion
We can conclude that the tactics and strategies must always be synchronized in order to
reach the objective, each tactic that is performed must be executed according to the strategy
that was implemented from the beginning, only that way it could be fulfilled with an
organized scheme and with margin of minimum error.

The most common mistake in all negotiations is not knowing how to differentiate strategy
from tactics, since many times they concentrate on carrying out a tactic without the initial
planning of a strategy, which leads to uncertainty and full of topics that can become serious
in such a competitive market.
Bibliography

• Faure, G.-O. (2004). CAIR.INFO. Obtenido de Acercamiento a la dimensión intercultural en las


negociaciones internacionales:
https://www.cairn.info/article.php?ID_REVUE=RFG&ID_NUMPUBLIE=RFG_153&ID_ARTICLE=RF
G_153_0187&contenu=resume

• Lewicki, R., Barry , B., & Saunders, D. (s.f.). Fundamentos de Negociación . (pp 1-95) México:
McGrawl-Hill.