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# 6σ

## What is Six Sigma ?

Understanding Variation

When the Lord created the world and people to live in it - an enterprise which,
according to modern science, took a very long time – I could well imagine that
he reasoned with himself as follows:

“If I make everything predictable, these human beings, whom I have endowed
with pretty good brains, will undoubtedly learn to predict everything,

## and they will thereupon have no motive to do anything at all,

because they will recognize that the future is totally determined and cannot be
influenced by any human action.
Understanding Variation

## On the other hand, if I make everything unpredictable,

they will gradually discover that there is no rational basis for any decision
whatsoever and, as in the first case, they will thereupon have no motive to do
anything at all.

## Let some things be predictable and let others be unpredictable.

They will then, amongst many other things, have the very important task of
finding out which is which.
Understanding Variation

## Variation is inherent to a process……

Understanding Variation
2
X X–X (X-X)
1 130 –20 400
2 166 16 256
3 178 28 784
4 131 –19 361
n
5 140 –10 100
∑X
Sample Mean i
6 125 –25 625
X= i =1

8
127 –23 529
n
145 –5 25
9 110 –40 1600
n
10 184 34 1156
∑ (X - X )
2

Sample i
11 161 11 121
Standard Deviation s= i− 1

12 194 44 1936
n− 1
13 171 21 441
14 125 –25 625
15 163 13 169 n

∑ (X - X )
2

## Sum 2250 9128 i

n
150 ∑ (X - X )
2
Mean
i
i− 1
652
n− 1
S2

S1 25.53
n

∑ (X - X )
2

i
i−1

n− 1
Understanding Variation

If we take the height of all the people of India and draw a distribution
Of frequencies it will tend to follow a normal distribution
Understanding Variation

Mean
X-bar
Understanding Variation

Mean
X-bar LSL
USL

LSL and USL are those specification limits beyond which your product
doesn’t have a salable value in the market
Understanding Variation

Mean
X-bar USL
LSL

T
Cp = T/6σ
Cpk = {(Mean - LSL)/3σ ,(USL - Mean)/3σ }
Understanding Variation

34.13% 34.13%

13.60% 13.60%
2.14% 2 .14%

0.13% 0 .13%

## -3s -2s -1s X +1s +2s +3s

68.26%

95.46%

99.73%

σ = SIGMA
68.26% Fall Within +\- 1 Sigma
95.46% Fall Within +\- 2 Sigma
99.73% Fall Within +\- 3 Sigma
Understanding Variation

\
1SD= 68% DATA

## 2SD = 95% DATA

3SD = 99%DATA

[
Understanding Variation

## Type of Variation Characteristics

Characteristics

Always Present
Common Cause Expected
Predictable
Normal

Not Always
Special Cause Present
Unexpected
Unpredictable
Not Normal
Has a surprise
element
Understanding Variation
• 2 short or long landings at almost all major airports each day

## Can you believe, all above correspond to a

performance level of 99%!
Understanding Variation
If We Accepted The Goal Of 99.9% Quality

## • Then We Would Have…

• One Hour Of Unsafe Drinking Water Every Month
• Two Unsafe Plane Landings Per Day At O’Hare International
Airport
In Chicago
• 16,000 Pieces Of Mail Lost By The U.S. Postal Service Every
Hour
• 500 Incorrect Surgical Operations Each Week
• 50 Newborn Babies Dropped At Birth By Doctors Each Day
• 22,000 Checks Deducted From The Wrong Bank Accounts Each
Hour
• 32,000 Missed Heartbeats Per Person, Per Year
Understanding Variation

## Sigma Rating PPM

2 308,537
3 66,807
4 6,210
5 233
6 3.4
Process Defects per
Capability Million Opportunities
 The Sigma scale of measure is perfectly correlated to such
characteristics as defects-per-unit, parts-per-million
defective, and the probability of a failure/error.
Understanding Variation

## Higher σ = less variation

= fewer defects
= better performance

6 σ process

## Lower Upper Specification Limit

Specification (USL)
Limit
(LSL)
Understanding Variation

Process Width

Cp = Specification
width
Process Width

Process variability
SPECIFICATION WIDTH
If the variability is well within the specified width then the process is capable
3-Sigma VS 6-Sigma Process
In every process it is observed that 1.5 Sigma long term drift takes place

## LSL USL LSL 1.5σ USL

1.5σ
3-σ 6-σ
= 99.73% = 99.99966%

-6 -5 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -6 -5 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Z- Scale 66,807 DPMO 3.4 DPMO
Z- Scale
3-Sigma Process 6-Sigma Process
What is Six Sigma ?

## A Measurement Scale Which

Compares The Output
Of A Process To
Customer Requirements
What is Six Sigma ?

Percent DPMO σ
93% 66,807 3.0
98% 22,750 3.5
99% 6,210 4.0
99.87% 1,350 4.5
99.9997% 3.4 6.0
Understanding Variation
Benchmarking
100K
(66810 ppm)
Restaurant Bills
Doctor Prescription Writing
10K Payroll Processing
Order Write-up
Average Journal Vouchers
Wire Transfers
Company(6210 ppm)
1K
Purchased Material
Lot Reject Rate Air Line Baggage
Handling
(233 ppm)
100

10

Best in Class
Domestic Airline
(3.4 ppm)
Flight Fatality Rate
1
2 3 4 5 6 (0.43 ppm)
7
SIGMA (with ±1.5 Sigma Shift)
Understanding Variation

Sweet Fruit – 6σ
Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) DFSS
Process Entitlement

Bulk of Fruit – 4 to 5σ
Process Improvement Six
Sigma Tools
DMAIC

## Low Hanging Fruit – 3 to 4σ

Ground Fruit – Up to 2σ
Logic and Intuition +
Basic Quality Tools
Kano Model
Satisfaction
+
Delighters
Innovation One-Dimensional
Competitive Priority

Dysfunctional Functional

Must Be
Critical Priority

Dissatisfaction
Taguchi Model
Cost

Performance
Six Sigma

Customer Happy

## Six sigma is about reducing variations in a process

Methodology

The methodology:
DMAIC
(define, measure, analyse, improve, control)
methodology to root out and eliminate the causes of defects
Methodology

## Charter Data Collection Plan Stratification Map Analysis C&E

Case Scope
– Units
Problem
Milestones – Defects
Statement
– Opportunity
Goal Roles
Statement – Process Sigma Root Cause
Analysis
Data Display Tools

S S I P O C
CPM Tree

Process σ
Scatter Plots Regression DOE

## Solution Cost/Benefit Analysis Monitoring Standardizing

Summary

Pilot
Wk 1 Wk 2 Wk 3 Wk 4 Wk 5 Wk 6 Wk 7 Wk 8 Wk 9 Wk 10 Wk 11 Wk 12

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I Documenting Response Plan
J
Induce Statistical thinking

Practical problem

Statistical problem

Statistical
solution

Practical solution
DMAIC Methodology
Charter A Team

## Clarify Customer Requirements

Define
Define Process (SIPOC)
Measure
Output Measurement

Process
Variation

## Analyze Stratification Charter A Team

Map Analysis C&E

Define
Clarify Customer Requirements
Root Cause
Analysis

Measure

## \$ Identify And Quantify The Opportunity \$

DMAIC Methodology

Generate
Improve
Solutions

Select

Pilot

Implement

Control

## Monitoring Standardizing Documenting Response

Plan
Different Faces
The Different Faces

## PDCA 7 STEPS “DMAIC”

Plan 1 Charter/Theme Define

## 3 Root Cause Analyze

Do 4 Solution Improve
Planning And
Implementation

Check 5 Confirming
Solution Works

6 Standardization Control

Steps
Define

Deliverables

## Define The Customer, Their Requirements, The

Team Charter And The Core Business Process
• Team Charter Documented And Reviewed With
Champion
• Customer Requirements Derived And Documented
• Validated High Level Process Map Completed
Measure

Deliverables

## Measure The Core Business Process Performance

• Identified Key Measures
• Developed A Data Collection Plan For The Process
• Executed The Plan And Document Results
• Process Variation Displayed With Appropriate Charts
And Graphs
• Calculated Baseline Sigma Performance
Analyse

Deliverables

## Analyze (The Data And Map) To Determine Root

Causes/Opportunities
• Complete Detailed Process Map For At Least
One Subprocess
• Identify Process Streamlining Opportunities
• Identify, Verify And Quantify Root Causes
• Establish Improvement Targets
• Quantify Opportunity
Improve

Deliverables

## Generate, Select, Design And Implement Improvements

• Solution Design Developed And Documented
• Solution Validated And Cost/Benefit Proposal Presented
To Champion
• Solutions Tested On A Small Scale Or Pilot Program
• Implementation Plan Developed And Executed
Control

Deliverables

## Institutionalize The Improvement And Implement

Ongoing Monitoring
• Developed, Documented And Implemented An Ongoing
Process/Monitoring Plan
• Standardized The Process
• Procedures Documented
• Response Plan Developed And Displayed
Six Sigma Organisation

Sigma

External
Master Black Belt Consultant

## Green Belt Green Belt

Team Members Team Members
Yellow Belt Team Members Team Members Yellow Belt
Yellow Belt Yellow Belt
Six Sigma Project Example