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32 vues62 pagesAn overview of Design of Machine Foundations gathered from various sources is consolidated in the presentation. This is very useful for beginners. The presentation broadly covers concrete foundations for centrifugal and reciprocating type machinery used in Oil and Gas and Power industry.

May 16, 2019

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An overview of Design of Machine Foundations gathered from various sources is consolidated in the presentation. This is very useful for beginners. The presentation broadly covers concrete foundations for centrifugal and reciprocating type machinery used in Oil and Gas and Power industry.

© All Rights Reserved

0 évaluation0% ont trouvé ce document utile (0 vote)

32 vues62 pagesAn overview of Design of Machine Foundations gathered from various sources is consolidated in the presentation. This is very useful for beginners. The presentation broadly covers concrete foundations for centrifugal and reciprocating type machinery used in Oil and Gas and Power industry.

© All Rights Reserved

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(OVERVIEW)

By

Rama Rao Varanasi

INTRODUCTION

frame.

Types of Machines in Oil and Gas Industry

Centrifugal Machines

Reciprocating Machines

Centrifugal Machine

January 2011

Reciprocating Machine

Classification of rotating machines based on Frequency/speed

January 2011

Various types of commonly adopted foundations

MACHINE

CONCRETE CONCRETE/ST

BLOCK EEL FRAME

CONCRETE BASE

RAFT

SOIL

SOIL

Type Type

MACHINE

CONCRETE CONCRETE/ST

BLOCK EEL FRAME

SOIL

SOIL

Supported by piles supported by Piles

INPUTS

What inputs are needed for the foundation design?

What inputs are available in Project Design

basis?

Machine foundation

What are the Soil Parameters required?

Primary parameters

2. Poisson’s Ratio

3. Damping factor

Secondary Parameters

How to determine the Soil Parameters?

Field Tests :

•Down hole test (DHT).

•Spectral Analysis of Shear wave ( SASW)

•Block Vibration Tests

Laboratory tests:

•Resonant Column test

•Cyclical Tri axial Test

The above test are conducted usually by a Geotechnical Contractor and

appropriate values are recommended by him in the Geotechnical report

January 2011

Cross hole test-schematic

Down hole test- Schematic

Spectral Analysis of Shear Wave - Schematic

January 2011

Block vibration Test

Damping factor determination- Forced/Free Vibration test

Machine Vendor input

The following input is required from the machine vendor

•Loads from the Machine: Mass of the stationary as well as rotating parts of the

machine and load transfer mechanism from machine to the foundation

•Critical Machine performance parameters: Critical speeds of rotors, balance

grades and acceptable levels of amplitudes of vibration

•Dynamic forces generated by the Machine: forces generated under various

operating conditions and their transfer mechanism to the foundation for

dynamic response analysis.

•Additional forces generated under emergency or faulted conditions, Test

condition, Erection condition & Maintenance condition of the machine, forces

due to bearing failure ( if applicable) for strength analysis of the foundation.

Typical Vendor input ( Machine GAD):

ANALYSIS & DESIGN

The Analysis of the Machine foundation is done in two stages:

The process of evaluating the critical soil properties that influence soil

structure interaction is probably the most difficult part of the machine

foundation design- Dr. K.G.Bhatia

interactions are:

Deformation modes of soil

modes can be anticipated for Soil beneath the block foundation:

• Uniform Compression

•Uniform Shear

In the context of Machine foundation design, a Machine would necessarily

include:

•A drive machine

•A driven machine

•A coupling device

Schematically:

coupling Driven

Drive

machine

machine

A typical data set required for each of the components shown in the previous

schematic is:

•Total mass of machine ( including rotating parts), Radius of gyration and its over

all centroid location.

•Mass of rotating parts of the machine, operating speed, height of the centre of the

rotor from machine base frame, etc

•Foot print of machine base frame, details of holding down bolts

•Dynamic forces generated by the machine under operating conditions

• Static loads from machine

•Equivalent static forces i.e. dynamic forces converted to equivalent static forces

•Forces generated under emergency and faulted conditions eg: bearing failure,

loss of blade, short circuit etc.

•Forces during erection, maintenance and test conditions of the machine.

Parameters for rotary ( centrifugal) machines:

Centre of Mass

Centre of Rotation

Balanced condition

Centre of Mass ‘m’

e

Centre of Rotation

The above force is called unbalanced force

In every rotating machine there will be certain amount of unbalance(

eccentricity) which is inevitable.

ISO/ Machine manufacturer has set standards for the allowable eccentricity

based on:

•Rotating mass

Many rotating machines are balanced to an initial balance quality as per ISO

standards. This is called the balance quality grade.

Critical speeds: Correspond to flexural frequencies of the rotor. These are

supplied by the vendor. High vibration can occur on account of resonance of

foundation with critical speeds

quantify and can be taken as an static force equivalent to 3 to 5 times the

rotor weight.

Parameters for reciprocating machines:

Dynamic forces transferred at C.G of machine at base frame level

January 2011

Foundation Parameters

Vibration Limits in Machine Foundation design

Rotary type machines

Machine Operating speed Permissible amplitude in

in rpm Microns

100 to 500 200 to 80

500 to 1500 80 to 40

1500 to 3000 40 to 20

3000 to 10000 20 to 5

Reciprocating type machines

in rpm Microns

300 to 1500 1000 to 20

100 to 300 1000

The above are only approximate values. Actual permissible should be

given by the Machine Vendor/Manufacturer

January 2011

Foundation Sizing ( Block foundation):

eccentricity, in both lateral and longitudinal directions is bare minimum.

In no case it should not exceed 5% of the base dimension in the respective

direction

frame

The pressure developed in the soil loads due to static loads should not

exceed 75% of the allowable safe bearing capacity.

foundation mass slightly above the machine mass, a higher mass ratio

helps to keep the eccentricity of loading within limits.

mass

January 2011

Foundation Stiffness:

Foundation parameters that govern the dynamic response are its mass

and its area of contact with the soil. In specific cases projected parts of

foundation having finite stiffness also influence the dynamic response.

supporting it.

In the case of block foundation the rigidity is so high that under the

influence of static and dynamic forces the deformations of the block are

negligible compared to soil. The block foundation is therefore considered

as rigid body consisting of mass only.

In case the foundation of machine is not a solid block but a frame or some

other kind of structure which has stiffness comparable to that of soil, then

elements of those structures shall be considered to have both mass and

stiffness.

January 2011

Strength Design:

Since the block foundation behaves like a rigid body supported on a soft media like soil,

invariably the block foundations would turn out to be having adequate strength vis-à-vis

forces imparted by machine.

Strength design is done considering the forces and moments on the foundation due to

static loads, dynamic loads, emergency loads and applicable earthquake/wind loads.

Anchor bolts: All anchor bolts should be checked for pullout force caused due to

Dynamic and Emergency loads

Stability Checks:

The foundation shall be checked for sliding and overturning . But these checks

are not compulsory.

Minimum Reinforcement :

•25 to 50 kg/m3

•Two way reinforcement on all the faces and shrinkage reinforcement ( when

thickness of block exceeds 1m)

January 2011

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS ( Block Foundation)

WITH REFERENCE TO THE X-Y-Z CO-ORDINATE SYSTEM

VERTICAL VIBRATION

ROCKING

PITCHING

YAWING OR TWISTING

Foundation Movement

Z

Y

θ

φ

X

ψ

January 2011

Vertical Vibration

Machine

Block Fdn.

January 2011

Horizontal Vibration

January 2011

Rocking & Pitching Vibration

January 2011

Yawing Vibration

January 2011

Single Degree Freedom Mathematical Model

foundation

Soil Damping

January 2011

Lumped Parameter System

Z mz z cz z k z z P0 sin( t )

k

n

Cz Kz m

Kx

Iψ m X

ψ

Cx

Kψ D c ccr ccr 2 k m

Cψ/2 Cψ/2

January 2011

Lumped Parameter Values

Stiffness k 3(1 )

1 2 3

Mass Ratio m(1 ) m( 2 ) 3I (1 ) I

m̂

m 4 r 3 8 r 3 8r 5 r 5

Damping 0.425 0.288 0.15 0.50

Ratio, D mˆ 1 / 2 mˆ 1/ 2 (1 mˆ )mˆ 1/ 2 1 2m̂

Fictitious 0.27 m 0.095m 0.24 I x 0.24 I z

Mass mˆ mˆ mˆ mˆ

D=c/ccr G=Shear Modulus ν=Poisson's Ratio r=Radius ρ=Mass Density

Iψ,Iθ=Mass Moment of Inertia

January 2011

Closed form solution for free and forced vibration of foundation block subjected

to dynamic loads:

January 2011

FE Models of Block foundation

January 2011

Model with Soil and Block foundation

January 2011

Foundation Sizing ( Framed foundation):

vendor/Manufacturer.

January 2011

Eccentricity:

For Framed foundation there are two connotations to the term eccentricity:

of the over all system ( machine+ foundation) and C.G of the base contact

area of the foundation with soil. This should be restricted to 5%

2. Top deck eccentricity: It is defined as the distance between the centre of the

Mass Cm ( combined C.G of machine mass, top deck mass and 23% percent

of column mass) and centre of stiffness of frames Ck in the transverse and

longitudinal directions. It is desirable to restrict this eccentricity to 1% of the

respective dimension of the top deck.

Top deck comprises of transverse and longitudinal beams, slab connecting these

beams, projections on all sides of the beams, depressions, cutouts, notches etc.

b. For beams: Span/Depth = 3 to 5; Depth/width = 1 to 1.5

c. Extent of cantilever projections in plan should not be more than half the width

of the corresponding beam

d. Depth of slab should be invariably same as that of the encompassing beams

except at areas where the recess or depressions are provided to accommodate

machine

January 2011

Columns:

Total weight of the columns should be close to the weight of the machinery. This is

desirable but not essential condition

But the following should be kept in mind while assessing the sizes of columns

•Centre of stiffness of all the frames should coincide with centre of mass of

machine and top deck.

longitudinal directions) considering fixed at both ends should not coincide with

Machinery frequency or its harmonics.

Base raft:

• Raft plan dimensions are selected such that the bearing pressure generated is

less than 70% of allowable bearing pressure.

• Base raft thickness should be such that it acts like a rigid block and undergoes

uniform deformation.

•General guide line is weight of the base raft should be about twice the weight of

the machine

January 2011

Stiffness of frame foundation:

Unlike block members of frame foundation have finite stiffness and are

subjected to considerable elastic deformations.

Framed foundation is considered as elastic body with both mass and stiffness.

Strength design:

design of the structural members i.e. columns, beams and slabs.

Minimum Reinforcement:

• Reinforcement for top deck and columns to be in the range of 100 to 120

kg/m3

•Reinforcement for base raft shall be in the range of 70 to 80 kg/m3

January 2011

Framed foundation under construction

January 2011

Loads for which Static Analysis is recommended:

•Dead Load

•Live load

•Normal torque load

•Condenser load

•Thermal loading due to machine expansion/contraction

•Piping loads

Loads for which Pseudo-dynamic Analysis is recommended:

•Normal machine unbalanced load for machines mounted on conventional

foundations

•Seismic loading

Loads for which Pseudo-dynamic analysis is acceptable:

•Short circuit load

•Out of phase synchronization

•Loading due to bowed rotor

•Load due to missing rotor blade

Loads for which dynamic analysis is recommended:

•Normal machine unbalance load for machines mounted low tuned

foundation

•Seismic loading

January 2011

3. Dynamic Analysis of Framed Foundation

Unlike block foundations, framed foundation has many modes of vibration.

Before the advent of computers the framed foundations are analyzed manually.

The manual procedure aims at analyzing the frames of the foundation

independently for free and forced vibrations and algebraically summing up the

response for all frames. ( Refer Handbook of Machine foundations by Srinivasulu

and Vaidyanathan for Manual Analysis of framed foundation).

January 2011

Modeling Methods for Framed foundation:

Method 1:the loads are applied to the model of the super structure to

determine the foundation response. The computed reactions at the

base of the columns are then used as input forces on the model of the

mat

incorporated into a single model. This procedure will yield results for

the entire foundation in one analysis.

For both the above methods the beams and columns are modeled

using 3 dimensional beam elements, shear walls ( if any) and mat are

modeled using plate-bending elements.

January 2011

Models for Dynamic Analysis ( some major points to remember):

The dynamic model should not be created independently of the static model but

should be created from static model by incorporating the following:

•Enough nodes should be specified along the length of beams and columns so

as to capture frequencies of modes which match with machine frequency.

consistent mass approach

•It is recommended that 2% of critical damping used for concrete elements and

1% for steel elements.

•The dynamic model of foundation should also include the machine. The simplest

method to model this is modeling the machine as series of mass points lumped

with the foundation.

January 2011

Typical Free Vibration Response of FE model of Framed foundation

January 2011

Typical Response of foundation subjected to Dynamic loading

January 2011

Miscellaneous Topics

response of the turbine foundation. These effects are termed as

soil structure interaction effects.

negligible for framed foundation under operating conditions.

However, they can be critical under non-periodic forces like

earthquake, short circuit etc.

case of block foundations.

January 2011

2. Machine foundations on Piles:

circumstances:

•When it is required to increase the natural frequency of the machine

foundation system.

•When dynamic amplitudes are required to be reduced

•When it is required to stiffen the support system on account of seismic

considerations.

piles

•Understanding of dynamic behavior of group of piles is still in its infancy.

•As the reliability of dynamic characteristics of group of piles is faced with

many questions, so shall be the status of computed dynamic response

January 2011

The following are observation by various researchers with regard dynamic

behavior of piles:

stiffness

•Both stiffness and damping of pile are found to be frequency dependent

•Damping increases with pile length

•Embedment of pile cap results in increased stiffness. However, its

quantification is not yet established

•Damping of group of piles is more frequency dependent

•Dynamic group effect considerably differs from static group effect.

•Rocking and torsional stiffness of the pile can be safely ignored

January 2011

January 2011

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