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 A computer is an electromechanical device

which can be programmed to change (process)


data into information or information from one
form to another.

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 Embedded computers – Computers found in
consumer goods in order to enhance their function.

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 Special purpose or dedicated computers – A device
with a specific purpose such as gaming, banking
system ...

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 Hardware = The physical components
that make up a computer system.

 Software = The programs (instructions)


that tell the computer what to do.

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A computer is an electronic device, operating under the
control of instructions stored in its own memory, which can
accept data (input), process the data according to specified
rules (process), produce results (output), and store and the
results (storage) for future use

Input Processing Output Storage


Input Processing Output Storage

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Hardware Resources:

 Computer System: Consists of all ICs, Chips, Cards


data and power cables, and CPU inside the system unit

 Computer Peripherals: They are input, output and


storage devices
Input Processing Output Storage

• An input device is any hardware device that


sends data to a computer, allowing you to
interact with and control it. which is an
example of an input device. The most
commonly used or primary input devices on a
computer are the keyboard and mouse.
 Enter information into a computer
 Examples:
◦ Mouse
◦ Keyboard
◦ Trackball
◦ Touchpad
◦ Light pen
◦ Joystick
◦ Digital camera
◦ Microphone
◦ Bar code reader
◦ Scanner

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(Information & Communication Technology)

Computer System / Computer Architecture:


• Computer Memory

• RAM
• ROM

• Computer Buses

• Function
• Capacity
• Speed
Let’s open the box!

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 15


 system board or motherboard
system board or motherboard is an interface boards or expansion
boards, it’s a
single circuit board with the components which make up the
computer’s processor for a microcomputer, including the:
 CPU (Central Processing Unit)
 Memory
◦ RAM
◦ ROM or ROM BIOS
 expansion slots

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The system unit components

• Computer Ports

• Serial
• Parallel
• USB
• FireWire etc.
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CPU (Central Processing Unit) = A complex collection of electronic
circuits on one or more integrated circuits (chips) which:
1. executes the instructions in a software program
2. communicates with other parts of the computer system,
especially RAM and input devices

The CPU is the computer!

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◦ RAM
◦ ROM or ROM BIOS

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RAM (Random Access Memory) = integrated circuits (chips) used
to temporarily store software (programs, instructions) and data
 “primary” storage for the CPU
 electronic switches, storing ON’s and OFF’s

Temporarily stores for the CPU:


 Software
◦ operating system software
◦ application software
 Data
◦ data (documents, spreadsheets, etc.)

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RAM is TEMPORARY memory

RAM is volatile
 stores ON and OFF bits (software and data)
electrically
 when power goes off, everything in RAM is lost

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Why does the CPU use RAM?
 The CPU is very FAST!

 The CPU needs the instructions (software) and data as quickly as


possible
 If the CPU has to wait, so does the user

Why doesn’t the CPU use permanent storage like disk drives?
 Too slow

 EXAMPLE: Spellchecker

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The amount of RAM determines:
 what software and data the user can work on
 how much software and data the user can work with
 Most computers have at least 256 MB (Megabytes, 256 million
bytes)

“out of memory” error message from the Operating System

The more complex and sophisticated the software, the more


instructions that software contains, which means larger software
files.

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ROM (Read Only Memory) = integrated circuits (microchips) that
are used to permanently store start-up (boot) instructions and
other critical information
Read Only = information which:
 Cannot be changed
 Cannot be removed
 Cannot be appended (added to)
 Fixed by manufacturer

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ROM is sometimes known as ROM BIOS (Basic Input Output System
software)

ROM permanently contains:


 start-up (boot) instructions
 instructions to do “low level” processing of input and output
devices, such as the communications with the keyboard and the
monitor

Firmware = software program which is stored permanently on a


microchip, such as the software on the ROM chip
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Input Processing Output Storage

• An output device is any peripheral that receives


data from a computer, usually for display,
projection, or physical reproduction. For example,
printer, an output device that can make a hard
copy of any information shown on your monitor,
which is another example of an output device.
 Send information out from a PC
 Examples:
◦ Speakers
◦ Monitors
 Visual Display Unit (VDU), Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), Liquid
Crystal Display (LCD), Light-Emitting Diode (LED)
◦ Printers

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Input Processing Output Storage

• A storage device is any computing hardware that


is used for storing, porting and extracting data
files and objects, such as HDD, Pen drive, CD...
 Storage Devices:
◦ Floppy disks
◦ DVD and CD-ROMs
◦ Hard disks HDD
◦ Zip disks
◦ Tape drives 31
 Store up to 1.44 MB
of data
 Usually 3.5" square
disks
 Removable

Write-Protect tab
(Open means “write
enabled”)

Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu 32


 Store up to 250 MB of
data
 Used for backing up
files or transporting
large files

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 Work like a tape
recorder
 Vary in capacity and
access speed
 Relatively expensive
 Generally used to
back up data
 Good for “archiving”
information
 Types
◦ Cartridge (slowest)
◦ DAT (Digital Audio
Tape)

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 Fixed permanently in a hard
disk drive inside a system unit
 Used to store the operating
system, applications, and data
 Can not buy more expansion
(easily)

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 Read-only memory devices (but CD-R and CD-
RW discs are recordable), Store up to 650 MB of
data
 DVD (digital versatile disc) is a digital optical
disc storage. The medium can store any kind of
digital data and is widely used for software and
other computer files as well as video programs
watched using DVD players. Store up to 4.7
GB single and 9.4 GB double-sided
 DVD Blu-ray discs today come with storage
capacities of 25GB for a single-layer disc,
and 50GB for a dual-layer disc. The 100GB disc
adds a third storage layer for extra capacity.

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 Storage
 Pen Drive
 Flash Memory
 Digital Player
 Voice Recorder

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 Cloud computing is
where the Internet
acts as a “cloud” of
servers
◦ Applications provided as
a service rather than a
product
◦ Supplied by servers
 Google Drive Docs
 Mint.com
Google Drive Docs
Online Storage
Benefits / Advantages
◦ Maintenance
◦ Hardware upgrades
◦ File sharing and
collaboration

Disadvantages
◦ Access speed
◦ File Security
 Using a cloud storage service makes it
easy to upload and share files with
anyone.

Getting Started The Dropbox Folder Getting More Storage Space


 Large amounts of
secondary storage
requirements
 Enterprise storage system
◦ Safe use of data across an
organizational network
 Devices include:
◦ File servers
◦ Networked attached storage
(NAS)
◦ RAID systems
◦ Organizational cloud storage
 Architecture to link remote computer
storage devices
◦ Enterprise storage systems
◦ Computers to provide local system access
 User’s computer provides file system,
but SAN provides disk space
 House data in remote locations and
still allow efficient and secure access
 CPU speed (and
type)
 Amount of RAM
(and speed)
 Hard disk
capacity

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Bits – Binary digits, or 0,1.
Bytes (8 bits) – ASCII, EBCDIC
One byte is the space needed to store one
character, like the letter “A”.

Kilobyte (KB) – 1000 (actually, 1024)


Megabyte (MB) – 1,000,000
Gigabyte (GB) – 1,000,000,000
Terabyte (TB) – 1,000,000,000,000
 CPU Speed
◦ Governed by a clock
◦ Measured in millions of
cycles per second, or
megahertz (MHz)
 700 MHz means 700
million operations per
second
◦ Measured in billions of
cycles per second, or
megahertz (GHz)
 1.133 MHz means 1
billion, 133 million
operations per second

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 Input
◦ Keyboard, Mouse,
Webcam, Touch Pad,
Mic, Scanner
 Processing
◦ CPU
 Output
◦ Monitor, Printer,
Speakers
 Storage
◦ Primary: RAM and ROM
◦ Secondary: Floppy,
Hard Drive, CD, DVD,
Flash Drive