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The Mixed 


Reporters: Elizabeth G. Espiritu

Lea Incog

Raiza kie Dela Cruz

Mixed Method Research
• is a technique used to gather, analyse and integrate
quantitative data as in experiments and surveys,
and qualitative as in focus groups and interviews.
• This approach to research provides or with another
problem. The strength of combining both
quantitative and qualitative approaches is that the
researcher gains in-depth understanding
highlighted over the other.
Allows the researchers to identify
more accurately aspects of the
problem by approaching it from
different viewpoints using successful
triangulation which requires careful
analysis strengths and weaknesses.
When to use it?
Mixed methods research is particularly suited:

1. When one wants to validate or corroborate the results obtained from other
2. When one needs to use one method to inform another method.
3. When one wants to continuously look at a research question from different angles,
and clarify unexpected findings and/or potential contradictions.
4. When one wants to elaborate, clarify, or build on findings from other methods.
5. When one wants to develop a theory about a phenomenon of interest and then test
6. When one wants to generalize findings from qualitative research.
Advantage of Mixed Method

1. Provides strengths that offset the weaknesses of both

quantitative and qualitative research.
2. Provides a more complete and comprehensive
understanding of the research problem than either
quantitative or qualitative approaches alone.
3. Provides an approach for developing better, more context
specific instruments.
4. Helps to explain findings or how causal processes work.
Disadvantages and Limitation of 
Mixed Method
– The research design can be very complex.
– Takes much more time and resources to plan and implement this
type of research.
– It may be difficult to plan and implement one method by drawing
on the findings of another.
– It may be unclear how to resolve discrepancies that arise in the
interpretation of the findings.
Types of mixed methods research designs

– Sequential explanatory design

This design involves the collection and analysis of quantitative data
followed by the collection and analysis of qualitative data.
When to use it?
– To help explain, interpret or contextualize quantitative findings.
– To examine in more detail unexpected results from a quantitative
– Easy to implement because the steps fall into clear separate stages.
– The design is easy to describe and the results easy to report.
– Requires a substantial length of time to complete all data collection given
the two separate phases.
– The researcher collects data about people’s risk and benefit perceptions
of red meat using a survey and follows up with interviews with a few
individuals who participated in the survey to learn in more detail about
their survey responses (e.g., to understand the thought process of
people with low risk perceptions).
Quantitative Qualitative Interpret
Data Data Result

Explanatory Sequential design

– Sequential exploratory design
In this design, qualitative data collection and analysis is followed by
quantitative data collection and analysis.

When to use it?

– To explore a phenomenon and to expand on qualitative findings.
– To test elements of an emergent theory resulting from the qualitative
– To generalize qualitative findings to different samples in order to
determine the distribution of a phenomenon within a chosen
– To develop and test a new instrument
– Easy to implement because the steps fall into clear, separate stages.
– The design is easy to describe and the results easy to report.
– Requires a substantial length of time to complete all data collection given the
two separate phases.
– It may be difficult to build from the qualitative analysis to the subsequent data
– The researcher explores people's beliefs and knowledge regarding nutritional
information by starting with in-store interviews and then uses an analysis of the
information to develop a survey instrument that is administered later to a
sample from a population.
Qualitative Quantitative Interpret
Data Data Result

Exploratory Sequential design

Concurrent triangulation
In this design only one data collection phase is used, during which
quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis are conducted
separately yet concurrently.

When to use it?

– To develop a more complete understanding of a topic or phenomenon.
– To cross-validate or corroborate findings.
– Provides well-validated and substantiated findings.
– Compared to sequential designs, data collection takes less time.
– Requires great effort and expertise to adequately use two separate methods at the
same time.
– It can be difficult to compare the results of two analysis using data of different forms.
– It may be unclear how to resolve discrepancies that arise while comparing the results.
– Given that data collection is conducted concurrently, results of one method (e.g.,
interview) cannot be integrated in the other method (e.g., survey).
– The researcher uses a survey to assess people’s self-reported food safety practices and
also observes those practices in their natural environment. By comparing the two
types of data, the researcher can see if there is a match between what people think
they are doing and what they are actually doing in terms of food safety practices.
Concurrent nested
– In this design only one data collection phase is used, during which a
predominant method (quantitative or qualitative) nests or embeds the
other less priority method (qualitative or quantitative, respectively).
This nesting may mean that the embedded method addresses a different
question than the dominant method or seeks information from different
levels. The data collected from the two methods are mixed during the
analysis phase of the project.
When to use it?
– To gain broader and in-depth perspectives on a topic.
– To offset possible weaknesses inherent to the predominant method.
– Strengths:
– Two types of data are collected simultaneously, reducing time and resources (e.g., number of
– Provides a study with the advantages of both quantitative and qualitative data.

– Weaknesses:
– The data needs to be transformed in some way so that both types of data can be integrated during
the analysis, which can be difficult.
– Inequality between different methods may result in unequal evidence within the study, which can
be a disadvantage when interpreting the results.

– Example:
– The researcher collects data to assess people’s knowledge and risk perceptions about genetically
modified food by using a survey instrument that mixes qualitative (open-ended) and quantitative
(closed-ended) questions, and both forms of data are integrated and analysed.
Concurrent design

Quantitative Qualitative
data data

Research Comparison and

integration of result
Why use mixed methods?

– Validity – Unexpected results

– Offset – Instrument
– Completeness development
– Process – Credibility
– Explanation – Context
– Utility
Mixed Methods Proposals/Papers
– Multiple conceptual frameworks of study
– Concurrent or sequential design
– One method may have priority or both methods may have equal standing
– Mix can happen throughout study starting at data collection, or is integrated at
– Need for adequate resources for data collection and analysis, including
qualitative software.
– Sampling
– Word limits in proposal writing and in manuscript preparation for peer-reviewed
journals – use of tables and figures encouraged
Basic reasons for using mixed methods: 
– Need different, multiple perspectives, for more complete understanding of associations,
processes, and mechanisms.
– Hypothesis building.
– Confirmation and explanation of quantitative results with data describing qualitative
– Qualitative inquiry as a first step in instrument development.
– Need better contextualized instruments, measures, or interventions to reach certain
– Need to enhance our experiments.
– Need to gather trend data and individual perspectives from community members.
– Need to evaluate the success of a program by using a needs assessment AND a test of
the success of the program