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FLOW OVER WEIR AND NOTCHES

OUTLINE

 Notch
 Types of Notch
 Weir
 Types of Weir
 Difference between Notch & Weir
Notch
 A notch may be defined as an opening provided in one side of a tank or
a reservoir, with upstream liquid level below the top edge of the
opening.
 A notch is a device used for measuring the rate of flow of a liquid
through a small channel or a tank.
 It may be define as an opening in the side of a tank or a small channel
in such a way that the liquid surface in the tank or a channel is below
the top edge of the opening.
Types of Notch:
1) Rectangular notch
2) Triangular notch (V- notch)
3) Trapezoidal notch
4) Stepped notch
Discharge over a Rectangular Notch
 Consider a rectangular notch in
one side of a tank over which is
flowing.
 It gives less accuracy.
 The equation of discharge over
a rectangular notch
Q=2/3.Cd.L√(2g).H^(3/2)
Discharge over a triangular Notch
 A triangular notch is also known as V-Notch.
 Consider a triangular notch, in one side of a
tank, over which water is flowing.
 It gives more accuracy when discharge is
small.
 For 90˚ notch, the equation is simple.
 It requires only readings of H, to find
discharge.
 The equation of discharge over a triangular
notch
Q=8/15. Cd.√(2g).tan(θ/2).H^(5/2)
Discharge over a Trapezoidal
notch
 A trapezoidal notch is a combination of a
rectangular notch and two triangular notches
as shown in figure.
 Discharge over a trapezoidal notch =
(Discharge over Rectangular notch +
Discharge over Triangular notch)
Q = 2/3 Cd.L.√(2g).H^(3/2) +
8/15.C.d.√(2g).tan (θ/2).H.^(5/2)
Discharge over a Stepped notch
 A stepped notch is a combination of
rectangular notches.
 Discharge over a stepped notch =
∑( Discharge over different
rectangular notches).
Weir
 A weir is a concrete or a masonry structure, placed in an
open channel over which the flow occurs.
 It is generally in the form of vertical wall, with a sharp edge
at the top, running all the way across the open channel.
 The top of a weir over which water flows is known as crest
or sill.
 A weir is used to measure large discharge of rivers or big
canal.
Types of weirs:
1) According to the shape

(a) Rectangular weir (b) Cippoletti weir

2) According to the nature of discharge

(a) Ordinary weir (b) Submerged weir

3) According to the width of crest

(a) Narrow crested weir (b) Broad crested weir

4) According to the nature of the crest

(a)Sharp crested weir (b) Ogee weir


Cippoletti weir
 The Cippoletti weir is a trapezoidal weir,
having side slopes 1 horizontal to 4 vertical.
 The purpose of slope, on the sides, is to
obtain an increased discharge through the
triangular portions of the weir, which
otherwise would have been decrease due to
end contraction in case of rectangular weirs.
 Fransis formula for Cippoletti weir is,
Q= 1.84L.H^(3/2)
 General equation for Cippoletti weir is,
Q=2/3. Cd.L.√(2g).H^(3/2)
Discharge over a Narrow- crested
weir
 A narrow crested weir is a
hydraulically similar to an ordinary
weir or to a rectangular weir.

 The equation of discharge over a


narrow crested weir,
Q=2/3. Cd.L√(2g).H^(3/2)
Discharge over Broad crested weir

 This is a weir having very broad crest so


that the flow of water over crest may be
compared to the flow of water in
channel.
 The equation of discharge over a Broad
crested weir, Q= Cd. L . h. √(2g(H-h))
Discharge over a Sharp-crested
weir
 It is a special type of weir, having a sharp
crest.
 The equation of Discharge over a sharp
crested weir Q =2/3.Cd.L.√(2g).H^(3/2)
Ogee weir
 It is generally used as a spillway of a dam.
 The equation of discharge over Ogee weir,
Q= 2/3.Cd.L.√(2g).H^(3/2)
Submerged weir or Drowned weir
 The total discharge over the weir is obtained
dividing the weir by two parts.