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 Carbohydrates means “Hydrates of Carbon”.

 Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy alcoholic compounds with
at least 3 carbon atoms with potentially active carbonyl
group which may either be an aldehyde or ketone group.
 Carbohydrates play an important role as structural
component of plants (cellulose) and as a food reservoir
 2. They are important source of energy
 3. They are starting point for the synthesis of many
 4. Cellulose provide rigid supporting frame-work for
 5. Pentoses have role in replication of plants or DNA .
 6. Mucilages have water retaining properties.
 7. Sugars also combine with secondary metabolites
for their proper absorption, e.g. glycosides.
 Carbohydrates can be classified as:
 1. Monosaccharides
 2. Disaccharides
 3. Oligosaccharides
 4. Polysaccharides
 1. Monosaccharides
 i. Monosaccharides are simplest of all the sugars.
 ii. They are low molecular mass carbohydrates
 iii. They cannot be further hydrolysed into
smaller units
 iv. They are sweet in taste and soluble in water
 v. They are either aldoses (having aldo group) or
ketoses (having keto group).
 vi. They are major source of fuel for metabolism,
being used both as energy source and
No.of carbon Generic Name Example of Example of
atom ketoses aldoses
3 Trioses Dihydroxyacet Glyceraldehyd
one e

4 Tetroses Erythrulose Erythrose

5 Pentoses Ribulose Ribose

6 Hexoses Fructose Glucose

7 Heptoses Sudoheptulose Glucoheptone

 2. Disaccharides
 i. They are carbohydrates which upon hydrolysis yield
2 molecules of monosaccharides.
 ii. They are less sweet in taste and less soluble in
 iii. They are mostly found in living organisms.
 Examples
 a. Sucrose :
 Sucrose is most commonly occuring disaccharide in
plants; which upon hydrolysis yields invert sugar,
which contain equal quantities of glucose and
 b. Maltose :
 Although rarely occur in free form but it is produced in
large quantities upon hydrolysis of starch, and upon
hydrolysis yield 2 glucose .
 Other disaccharides include lactose, suphorose,
trehalose etc linked by beta 1-4 linkage, beta 1-2
linkage, alpha 1-1 linkages respectively.
 3. Oligosaccharides
 They contain from 2-10 sugar monomers linked by various
alpha and beta bonds (Glycosidic linkages) and include various
di, tri, tetra saccharides .
 Examples
 a. Maltotriose has 3 glucose molecules
 b. Dextrins has 8 glucose molecules
 4. Polysaccharides
 i. They contain more than 10 sugars linked by various linkages
similar to oligosaccharide
 ii. They are tasteless and insoluble in water.
 iii. They act as a fuel and structural component of cell
 iv. They are of two types
 a. Homopolysaccharides
 b. Heteropolysaccharides
 a. Homopolysaccharides
 These are the polysaccharides which upon hydrolysis
yield only one type of monosaccharides subunits, e.g.
Starch, Cellulose, Glycogen.
 b. Heteropolysaccharides
 These are the polysaccharides which upon hydrolysis
yield more than one type of monosaccharides subunits,
e.g. Agar, Mucopolysaccharides, Mucilages,
 1. Fehling’s Test
 Take 1-2 ml of heated CHO solution and treated it with equal amount of
Fehling’s solution A & B. Brick red ppt of cuprous oxide are produced on
heating due to oxidation of cuprous ions and itself reduced.
 𝑪𝑯𝑶 𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏+𝑭𝒆𝒉𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝑨 & 𝑩 𝑹𝒆𝒅𝒖𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒂𝒕
𝑩.𝑷.→𝑩𝒓𝒊𝒄𝒌 𝒓𝒆𝒅 𝒑𝒑𝒕
 All reducing sugars give this test like monosaccharides (lactose & maltose)
 2. Molisch Test
 Take 1-2 ml of heated CHO solution and treated it with Molish reagent (α-
naphthol). Then add 1-2 drops of conc. H2SO4 along the wall of test tube. It
give purple colour ring at the junction of 2 reagents.
 𝑪𝑯𝑶 𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏+𝑴𝒐𝒍𝒊𝒔𝒉 𝒓𝒆𝒂𝒈𝒆𝒏𝒕+𝑪𝒐𝒏𝒄.𝑯𝟐𝑺𝑶𝟒−−→𝑩𝒓𝒊𝒄𝒌 𝒓𝒆𝒅 𝒑𝒑𝒕
 It converts pentoses into Furfural and hexoses into Hydroxy methyl
 3. Osazone Test
 Osazone are sugar derivative formed by heating a sugar solution with
Phenylhydrazine, Hydrochloride, Sodium acetate and Acetic acid which
gives yellow crystals which are observed under microscope. These crystals
are characteristics for certain sugars to be identified, e.g. Glucose,
Galactose, Lactose and Maltose form osazone crystals.
 4. Salivaoff or Resorcinol Test For Ketones
 A crystals of resorcinol is added to the solution of sugar
and warmed on a water bath with equal volume of conc.
HCl. Pink rose colour appear which indicate the presence
of ketoses, e.g. fructose, honey or hydrolysed inulin.
 5. Test For Pentoses
 CHO solution is heated with equal volume of HCl
containing a little Phloroglucinol. Red colour produced
which indicate the presence of pentoses.
 6. Iodine Test
 Starch consists of amylose and amylopectin. Iodine is
added in the sugar solution, it incorporate into the layers
having bonds. Blue colour appear indicate the presence of
sugar (CHO).
 It is disaccharide containing alpha D-glucose and beta D-
fructose linked by alpha 1-2 linkage.
 It is also called Sacchrin or Table sugar or Simple sugar
 Botanical Origin
 1. Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane)
 2. Beta vulgarus (sugar beet)
 Family
 1. Graminae
 2. Chenopodiaceae
 Habitat
 Sugar cane is native in India and cultivated in Philippine,
Indonesia, and Lausanne.
 Sugar beet is produced in Germany, Austria, France and U.S.
Molecular Formula
 Production
 A. Sugar cane
 1. Crushing
 Stem—crushed between heavy iron rollers ---juice
 2. Boiling
 Neutralized and remove impurities by boiling with lime water
(to avoid acid hydrolysis of sucrose and to coagulate albumin
on top as scum and removed).
 3. Filtration
 Filter the juice and concentrated it
 4. Decolourizing
 Decolorize it by adding sulphur dioxide
 5. Crystallization
 Now crystalize it.
 6. Molasses
 When no more crystals are obtained, then they are separated.
Thick syrupy residue is formed, it is named as Molasses and
this molasses is used as animal Food and preparation of Ethyl
 B. Sugar Beet
 Beets are dug out, washed and cut into small slices
called Cosette.
 Sucrose and other constituents are extracted from plant
with hot or boiling water.
 Crude sucrose is obtained is subjected to purification
 It is also known as table sugar.
 Uses
 1. Vehicle for syrup
 2. Nutrient
 3. Demulcent .
 4. Preservative and bacteriostatic in conc. form
 5. To mask bitter taste .
 6. Anti-oxidant .
 7. Starting material for invert sugar
 8. Pharmaceutical aid.
 It is α-D-glucopyranose or D-glucose
 Sources:
 Grapes and other fruits, also called grape sugar
 Production:
 Glucose is obtained by the hydrolysis of starch .
 Dextrose is obtained by the hydrolysis of starch in the
presence of enzyme hydrolysate at 45 lb pressure for 35
 It can be purified up to 99.5-100% to yield pure
crystalline dextrose and suitable for use.
 It is also obtained from naturally occurring glycosides.
 Uses:
 Nutrient by mouth or by enemas or by injection (I.V.,
 Preparatin Available:
 Dextrose injection ----Dextrose + Alcohol
 Dextrose injection /tablet----Dextrose +NaCl
 Dopamine HCl + Dextrose Injection
 Lidocaine HCl + Dextrose injection
 Kcl+dextrose injection
 Dextrose+citrate(anticoagulant)
 Uses
 1. Sweetening agent
 2. Substitutes for sucrose in syrups
 3. As tablet binder and coating material
 4. In place of liquid glucose in many pharmaceutical
 5. In manufacture of candies, carbonated beverages, ice-
creams, bakery products and in the canning industry
 Mixture of saccharides obtained by incomplete hydrolysis
of starch
 In U.S. it is prepared from corn starch
 Constituents
 Contain dextrin , maltose, dextrose, water
 Production:
 Corn starch---washed----boiled with dilute HCl for 22
minutes at 30 lb pressure---neutralized by NaOH/KOH----
centrifuged ----filtered---clear liquid ---evaporated to
syrupy consistency
 Uses:
 1. Manufacturing of candy and ice-cream & candies.
 2. In bakery products
 3. In manufacturing of syrup.
 4. In canning industry as vehicle.
 5. For sweeting of fruits.
 Products of Glucose:
 1. Calcium gluconate----for calcium deficiency
 2. Iron-gluconate----for iron deficiency anaemia.
 It is keto sugar, monosaccharide isomer of glucose.
 Sources
 1. Sucrose:
 Glucose + fructose (by enzyme invertase)----subsequent separation---
purified----suitable for parenteral use.
 2. Inuline:
 Fructose polymer---fructose (on hydrolysis)
 3. Honey and sweet fruits
 Fructose is a keto sugar obtained from the honey (invert sugar) and sweet
 Properties:
 Colourless crystals or white crystalline powder
 Odourless
 Sweet taste .
 Freely soluble in water
 Uses:
 1. Food for diabetics (glucose substitute)
 2. Beneficial in diabetic acidosis
 3. Infant feeding formula (milk products)
 4. Food of interest for calories conscious individuals
 5. It is half sweeter than glucose
 6. When given parentally it causes less urination as compare to glucose.
 7. Fructose injection and fructose-NaCl, used as nutrient and electrolyte
 High fructose solution:
 They are prepared by controlled enzymtically isomerization of
 Isomerase is obtained from bacterial Streptomyces species.
 They contain fructose upto 90% .
 It is also known as cow’s milk sugar.
 It consists of D-glucose and D-galactose linked by β, 1-4
 Zoological Origin
 Bos taurus
 Family
 Bovidae
 Description of milk: Milk is fresh, unpasteurized or
pasteurized, white liquid that is an emulsion of fat
globules suspended in solution of casein, albumin,
lactose, inorganic salts and water.
 Water 80-90%
 Casein 3%
 Lactose5%,
 Mineral salts 0.1- 1.0%
 Fat(butter) 2.5-5.0%
 Vitamin rich.
 Preparation:
 When the milk is allowed to stand for few hours, fat globules rise up
to the top and form cream. It is surrounded by aluminous layer and
after Churning process, these globules unite together to form Butter.
 1. Skimmed milk
 When butter is removed from the top, remaining milk is called
Skimmed milk.
 2. Coagulum
 When skimmed milk is treated with Renin, it coagulate to form
coagulum, which is converted to cheese after proper treatment and
some liquid remain.
 3. Whey
 Remaining liquid is called Whey. It contains lactose and inorganic
salts. Lactose is crystallized from whey and dissolved in water. Then
recrystallized it to get Lactose.
 A semi synthetic sugar prepared by alkaline rearrangement of
lactose. Upon hydrolysis it yields fructose and galactose.
 Uses:
 1. It has poor absorption from GIT, so reaches colon
unchanged---metabolized by bacteria to lactic acid and acetic
acid---accumulation of acids causes GIT irritation----laxative --
-so useful in chronic constipation.
 2. It decreases the concentration of ammonia in blood (in GIT,
acid traps ammonia, converting it to ammonium ion ; while
acids are converted to acetate & lactate respectively. 25-50%
concentration of ammonia is decreased by taking 20-30%
grams of lactose in 3-4 days.

Wood sugar
Sweet wood sugar
It is pentose sugar.
 Preparation
 Obtained by boiling corn cobs, corn bran, straw & other similar
materials (xylan; a polymer of xylose) by boiling with dil. Acids
which cause hydrolysis of xylan and converted it into xylose.
 Characteristics
 1. Sweet taste sugar
 2. It is readily absorbed from small intestine ,
 3. It is not metabolized by mammalian enzymes----excreted as such
in urine.
 Uses
 1. FDA has approved it as diagnostic agent to measure absorption
properly of GIT.
 2. It is difficult to ferment but ferment and diagnose particular
 3. It is also used to check intestinal disease
 It is also known as Burnt Sugar.
 Preparation
 Solution of sugar (glucose or sucrose) is heated in the presence of acid or
 When it lose its sweet taste and become darkens in colour, i.e. brown. This
is known as burnt sugar.
 Characteristics
 Concentrated dark brown sugar
 Bitter sweet in taste
 One part of burnt sugar in 1000 parts of water can produce yellowish
orange colour.
 Uses
 1. Ice-creams
 2. Sweets
 3. Bakery products
 4. Puddings
 5. Colouring agent
 Mixture of saccharine substances collected in honey comb by bees
 Botanical Origin
 Apis mellifera
 Family
 Apidae
 Characteristics
 Thick syrupy liquid
 Density is 1.47
 Light yellow-reddish brown in colour
 Sweet in taste
 Pleasant agreeable odour
 Odour and taste depend upon the nature of flowers used in
 Chemical Constituent:
 1-Glucose 30-40% 2-Sucrose 0.1-10%
 3-Fructose 40-50% 4-Dextrin
 5-Formic Acid 6-Volatile Oils
 7-Pollen Grains 8-Enzymes
 9-Vitamins 10-Proteins
 11-Colouring Matters 12-Amino Acids
 Habitat:
 Present in England, West indies, California, Canada,
Australia, Pakistan and India.
 Collection & Preparation:
 There are three types of honey bees
 1-Queen bees
 2-Males or drones
 3-Under developed bees (workers)
 Workers Bees:
 Worker bees have hollow tubes (maxilla &labium) suck
nectar (sugar containing juice present in flowers; 25%
aqueous solution of sucrose).
 Juice passes through oesophagus into honey sacs(corps)
 Mixed with salivary secretions that contains enzyme invertase
 It convert sucrose to glucose and fructose(invert sugar)
 On returning to hives, deposit invert sugar (honey) in honey
comb and sealed the comb with wax
 Smoked hive to remove bees .
 Honey comb cut & honey collected by:
 1-Drainage
 2-Expression
 3-Centrifuge
 It is impure form of honey
 Heated it up to 80 oC impurities float on top & removed
 In this way we get pure honey.
 Adulteration:
 By adulterant , that is artificial invert sugar ; prepared by acid
hydrolysis of sucrose, this artificial sugar contains some
furfurals that gives red colour with resorcinol in HCl, so
artificial honey can be differentiated from natural honey by this
test (also by aroma).
 Uses:
 1. Nutrient, demulcent, laxative, bactericidal.
 2. Ingredient of linctus’s and cough syrups.
 3. In the treatment of Duodenal ulcer
 4. Antiseptic
 5. Excipient and nutrient
 6. Anti-diarrheal
 7. Urinary tract disorder.
 8. Promote healing and used in arteriosclerosis in brain.
 9. Ingredient of cream and cosmetics, balms, lotions,
soaps due to soothing effect.
 Characters
 Starch is irregular white, tasteless and odourless powder.
 It is insoluble in cold water
 It is soluble in hot water and form colloidal solution on boiling and
form translucent jelly upon cooling.
 It gives deep blue colour with iodine
 On addition of mineral acids, rupturing of starch granules caused
paste formation.
 It is derived from Latin word Sterchen means Stiffen.
 It is also called as Amylum
 Composition
 It is composed of:
 1. Amylose
 2. Amylopectin
Amylase Amylopectin

1. It is soluble in water 1. It is insoluble in water

2. It gives blue colour with iodine and 2. It gives violet colour with iodine
is easily precipitated and is not easily precipitated
3. It consists of 250-300 glucose units 3. It consists of more than 1000
linked together in linear fashion glucose units linked together by both
containing α-1,4 linkage. α-1,4 &
4. Enzyme amylase is used for α-1,6 linkage.
hydrolysis present in both plants and 4. Enzyme amylase is used for
animals hydrolysis present in both plants and
5. α-Amylase cause hydrolysis of animals
amylase producing glucose and 5. β-Amylase cause hydrolysis of
maltose amylopectin producing maltose
 Source
 Starch is obtained from corn, wheat, rice and potato
Plants Potato Corn Wheat Rice

Botanical Solanum Zea mays Triticum Oryza

origin tuberosum aestivum sativa

Family Solanaceae Graminae Graminae Graminae

Size 10-35 μm 35 μm 20-50 μm 2-10 μm

shape Ovoid Polygonal Lenticular polygonal

Spherical Spherical
 Preparation
 1. Maize starch
 Grains are softened by soaking in 0.2% aqueous solution
of sulphorous acid for 2-3 days---removed and crushed to
remove embryo or germ---milky liquid ---filtered to
remove debris---allowed to stand---decanted ---dried at
 2. Wheat starch:
 Flour +water ----dough ----keep for 1 hour----shaken in
grooved roller ----liquid ---centrifuged ---washed ---dried.
 3. Rice starch: Crushed the rice ---soaked in
0.4%NaoH ---softened grains then crushed + added
water then filtered---allowed to stand---decanted and
washed the starch---dried at 50-60C.
 4. Potato starch:
 Washed the potatoes and removed their upper layer---pulp
+added water and crushed ---allowed to stand ---starch
ppt.----filtered, dried and pulverized .
 Uses :
 1. Tablet binder and disintegrant
 2. Tablet filler
 3. Nutrient
 4. Astringent
 5. Demulcent
 6. Protectant
 7. Adsorbent
 8. Antidote for iodine poisoning.
 9. Pharmaceutical excipient.
 10. Starting material for other sugars
 11. In food industry
 12. In plastic industry
 It is polyglucan that is formed from sucrose (partial hydrolysis)
by action of transglucosylase enzyme system (dextran sucrase)
and it contain alpha 1-6 linkage (major) & alpha 1-2,1-4 and 1-
3 linkages (minor).
 Production
 In USA it is obtained from Corn starch
 In Europe it is obtained from Potato starch
 Properties
 Properties depend upon molecular weight(40,000-75000).
 Well suited for internal use b/c its viscosity and osmolality
resembles plasma.
 Non-toxic.
 Prolonged action due to slow cleavage of alpha 1-6 linkage.
 Yellow Dextrin
 If starch is heated at 180-200 oC with steam, yellow dextrin is
produced which is of inferior quality.
 White Dextrin
 If starch is heated at 110-115 oC with mineral acids, white
dextrin is obtained.
 Uses:
 1. 6% solution is used as plasma expender in shocks & minor
 2. It decrease blood viscosity, so used to improve proper blood
 3. It is used as stiffening agent and adhesive.
 4. It is used in paper sizing and cloth sizing
 Botanical Origin
 Inulin is obtained from tubers of Helianthus tuberosum
 Family
 Compositae
 Characters
 Sparingly soluble in water
 Readily soluble in hot water
 No colour with iodine
 Present in cell sap
 Chemical constituents
 Inulin is a polymer of fructo-furanose.
 It contains fructo-furanose ring with 30-35 units linked by β-
2,1 linkage.
 Preparation
 It can be prepared by immersing roots and rhizomes in
alcohol and crystallized.
 It can also be prepared by boiling the plant material for
some time and then filtered. It is cooled to get crystals of
 Uses
 Source of fructose
 In culture media as a fermentative identifying agent for
certain bacteria.
 Identify renal function.
 Diagnosis test for kidney problems.

 Linear of chemistry ß 1, 4-linked glucose

 Cellulose is chief polysaccharide of plant cell wall.
 The drugs include in this groups are
 1. Purified cotton or Cellulose
 2. Powdered cellulose
 3. Microcrystalline cellulose
 4. Methyl cellulose
 5. Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose
Purified cotton or Cellulose
 Purified cotton is also referred to as
 “absorbent Cotton”.
 Gossypium means Silky Substance (Arabic)
 Hirsutum means rough or hairy (Latin word)
 Botanical Origin:
 Gossypium hirsutum
 Family:
 Malvaceae
 Part used:
 Hair of the seed (That is freed from adhering impurities,
deprived of fatty matter, bleached and sterilized in its find
 Habit & Habitat:
 It is an annual herb (which) that attains a maximum height of
about 4 feet.
 Cultivated in southern United States. The united states produce
about half the world’s supply of cotton known as “American
upland cotton”.
 Also produced in Egypt and other tropical parts of Africa,
India, the west and East Indies and South America.
 G. barbadense, a somewhat larger plant, is cultivated in South
Carolina and Georgia along the sea cost and yield sea Island
 Characteristics:
 1. It is white, filamentous, soft hairs that appear under
microscope as hollow, unicellular, flattened and granular.
 2. It is 25-35 μ in diameter and 2.5-4.5 cm in length.
 3. Tasteless
 4. Odourless
 5. Polysaccharides which is polymer of glucose unites
linked together by ß-1,4 linkage, glycosidic bond.
 6. It is hydrolysed by enzyme Cellulase
 Production:
 Plant produces capsule (2-10) which opens along longitudinal
structure, when ripe and reveal a mass of white hairs attached
to brownish seeds.
 Seeds are collected and “ginned” a machine process for
removing the seeds from the mass of hairs (cotton fibres).
 Then remove impurities and small hairs (linters)
 Surgical cotton or absorbent cotton by carding (combing)
 Then it is treated with alkali to remove fatty material.
 Then bleached with chlorinated soda (Methyl hypochlorite)
 Then washed with weak acid for the neutralization.
 Then washed with water.
 Finally dried and recorded into flat sheets.
 After the absorbent cotton is packed, it is usually sterilized.
 Production for Textile Industry
 Spun into treated and then woven.
 Then treated with various chemicals to produce such fabrics
 Mercerized cotton, rayon and others.
 Constituents:
 Cotton consists almost exclusively of
 Cellulose: - A ß-linked linear glucopyranose/polymer.
 - ß-linkage is not hydrolysed by mammalian enzyme system.
 Hydrolysis of Cellulose:- But hydrolysed by cellulase
(produced by many microorganisms including the lumen
micro flora of herbivorous animals).
 Uses:
 1. Purified cotton is used in surgical dressing
 2. It serves as a mechanical protection to absorbed blood, mucus and
pus etc.
 3. Protectant of wounds
 4. Protectant from bacteria
 5. In textiles it is commercially used as a source of pure cellulose in
the manufacture of explosives, cellulose acetate and other materials.
 6. In pharmacy it is used to produce cellulose derivatives
 Powder cellulose
 Carboxy methylcellulose
 Cellulose acetate phthalate
 Oxidized cellulose
 Pyroxylin (find special application in collodions production)
 It is partially produced by mechanical disintegration of α-
cellulose obtained from the pulp of fibrous plant material.
It may be of different grades ranging from free flowing
dense powder to non-flowing coarse powder depending
upon the size of granules.
 Properties:
 1. It is insoluble in water, ethanol, ether and dilute mineral
 2. It is slightly soluble in NaOH solution.
 3. White in colour
 4. Odourless
 5. Fibrous particles
 Identification Test:
 Mix 30g of powder in 270ml of water in high speed
powder blender for 5 minutes.
 The resultant suspension is either a free flowing
suspension or a heavy lumpy suspension.
 If a free flowing liquid is obtained transfer 100ml of
suspension into a 100 ml graduated cylinder and allow to
stand for an hour.
 The solid settles and a supernatant liquid is obtained.
 Uses:
 It is used as a self-binding tablet diluent and disintegrating
 Synonyms:
 Cellulose gel
 About the drug:
 It is partially depolymerized cellulose and it is obtained by
treating α-cellulose (obtained from the pulp of fibrous plant
material) with “mineral acids”.
 Properties:
 1. Fine white, odourless powder
 2. It is consisting of free-flowing non-fibrous particles
 3. It is insoluble in water, either and mineral acid
 4. It is slightly soluble in NaOH solution.
 5. It is crystalline powder.
 Use:
 It is used in tablet manufacturing industry as a diluent and
 Nano-crystalline powder used in bullet proof materials.
 It is methyl ether of cellulose which contain not less than
27.5% and not more than 31.5% methoxy group.
 Definition:
 Methyl cellulose is cellulose obtained directly from natural
stains of fibrous plants material and partially etherified with
methyl group.
 Production:
 It is produced by treating the cellulose with caustic soda and
with methyl chloride.
 General Characteristics:
 It is white fibrous powder.
 It swells in water to produce clear to opaque colloidal
solution result in gel formation
 It is insoluble in hot water
 Uses:
 1. It is used as bulk laxative in chronic constipation.
 2. Also used as thickening, suspending and emulsifying
 3. Used for preparation of topical protectant tears or
contact lens solution.
 4. Stabilizer of lotion and pastes
 5. Sterilizer
 6. 0.5-1% solution is used as topical protectant.
 7. Increase viscosity of material.
 About The Drug:
 1. It is white to cream in colour.
 2. It is an odourless and tasteless hygroscopic powder or
 3. It is water soluble.
 4. It is insoluble in organic solvents.
 5. It contains 0.7 carboxy methyl groups per glucose
residue unit.
 Production:
 It is obtained by treating cellulose with chloroacetate and its sodium
 Carboxy methyl cellulose is formed.
 It is then treated with sodium chloride to form sodium carboxy methyl
 Uses:
 1. Antacid
 2. Bulk laxative
 3. Suspending agent
 4. Thickening agent
 5. Tablet excipient
 6. Also used in products intended for appetite-suppressant.
 7. It is used in varying proportions with micro-crystalline cellulose to
give suspending agents with different viscosities.
 Gums are considered as pathological products after injury of
higher plants or owing to unfavourable conditions like drought
or by breakdown of cell walls.
 They are extracellular formations
 They are soluble in water and form gummy masses
 Mucilages are considered as physiological products.
 They are intracellular formation and normal products of
metabolism produced within the cells.
 They have water retention property and form slippery masses

Gums readily dissolve in water Mucilages form slippery masses in water

Gums are pathological products Mucilages are physiological products

 Uses
 1. Tablet binder and disintegrant
 2. Emulsifiers
 3. Gelating agents
 4. Suspending agents
 5. Stabilizers
 6. Thickening agent
 7. Seal wounds
 8. Prevent bacterial action
 9. Dental formulations
 10. Adhesives
 11. Bulk laxatives
 Botanical Origin:
 Astragalous gummifer
 Family:
 Leguminosae
 Part Used:
 Dried gummy exudates.
 Habit & Habitat of Tragacanth:
 Habit:
 Plants are thorny branching shrubs about 1m in height. They
are produced at the altitude of 1000-3000 meters.
 Habitat:
 Asia, Syria, Iran, Greece & Soweat Union
 Characteristics:
 White or pale-yellowish white in colour
 Odourless
 Translucent in appearance
 Tasteless
 Curved or twisted ribbon-like flares marked with concentric ridges.
 Collection:
 When plant is injured or gum cells are incised
 Cell walls of the piths and medullary rays after injury transform in to
 Gum absorbs water and pressure develops within the stem which forces
the gum to incise the surface and appear outside as soft tragacanth.
 First it is in liquid form, then converted to solid form when come in
contact with air undergo evaporation.
 Vermiform Tragacanth
 Solid tragacanth is in worm twisted like form so named as
Vermiform Tragacanth.
 Tragacanth Sorts
 If shape of tragacanth is like irregular tears, then it is
called Tragacanth sorts. It is yellowish brown in colour.
 Ribbon Gum and Flake Gum
 Better grade tragacanth can be obtained by making
transverse incisions in the stem with sharp knife, ribbon
like gum is produced known as Ribbon Gum and Flake
 Constituents:
 Tragacanth comprises of two vital fraction
 Water-insoluble & is termed as “bassorin” 30-40%
(polymethoxylated acids)
 Water-soluble & is termed as “tragacanthin” 60-70%
(demethoxylated bassorin)
 Both are insoluble in alcohol.
 Both components may be separated by coming out
simple filtration of a very dilute mucilage of tragacanth.
 Starch, proteins, sugar & uronic acid are also present
 They upon on hydrolysis yield Glacturonic acid,
Galactopyranose & Xylofuranose
 Uses:
 1. Suspending agent, thickeners, adhesives
 2. In cloth printing
 3. It is used as demulcent in throat preparations.
 4. It is employed as an emollient in cosmetics.
 5. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid as a suspending agent for insoluble &
heavy powders in mixtures.
 6. It is effectively as binding agent for the preparation of tablets & pills.
 7. It is also used as emulsifying agent for oils & waxes.
 8. A substantial amount found its application in calico-printing & in
 9. It is used for making the medicinal jellies e.g spermicidal jelly.
 10. A 0.2-0.3% concentration is frequently used as stabilizer for making ice-
creams and various types of sauces e.g. tomato sauce.
 11. It is used to impart consistence to traches.
 12. Mucilages & pastes find their usage as adhesives.
 Acacia is derived from “Akaia” means “pointed ends” which the thorny
nature of plant.
 “Senegal” represents the habitat of plant. It has been used by some Arabic
physician, so, named as “Arabic gum”.
 Synonym:
 Indian gum.
 Gum acacia
 Gum Arabic
 Botanical Origin:
 Acacia Arabica
 Acacia Senegal.
 Family:
 Leguminosae
 Part Used:
 Dried gummy exudates of stem and branches
 Habit & Habitat:
 Acacia plant is a tree of 4m in height
 Native of Sudan & Senegal (west Africa). Sudan is the
major producer of this gum and caters of about 85% of
the world supply.
 Production:-
 Acacia is recovered from wild as well as cultivated plants
as follows;
 From Wild Plants:
 The gum after collection is freed from small bits of bark &
other foreign organic matter, dried inson directly that in
the bleaching of the natural gum to a certain extent.
 From Cultivated Plants:
 Usually, transverse incisions are inflicted on the bark which
is subsequently peeled both above & below the incision (2-3
feet) to a distance 2-3 inches in breadth.
 Gum exude out from incisions
 Upon oxidation, the gum get solidified in the form small
translucent beads, referred to as “tears”.
 Tears of gum normally become apparent in 2-3 weeks.
 About 900-2000 grams of gum produced annually.
 Formation of gum may be caused by bacterial action or by
the action of fermentation.
 Gum is hand pick and collected in leather bags and garbled.
 Gum can be ripened by exposure to sun light, it can also be
spray dried.
 Characteristics:
 Tears are usually white, pale-yellow & sometimes creamish-brown to red
in colour.
 The powder has an off white, pale yellow or light brown I appearance.
 Odourless.
 Bland & mucilaginous in taste
 Chemical Constituents:
 Arabin (mixture of Ca, Mg & K salts of Arabic acid)
 Arabinose
 Rhamnose
 Glacturonic acid
 Glucronic acid
 Water (12-15%)
 Enzymes (oxidases, peroxidases)
 Uses:
 1. Emulsifying agent
 2. Suspending agent
 3. Emollient
 4. Adhesive
 5. Cosmetic preparation
 6. The mucilage of Acacia is employed as demulcent.
 7. It finds its enormous application as binding agent for tablets e.g.
cough lozenges.
 8. It us used in conjunction with gelatin to form conservatives for
the encapsulation of drug.
 9. It is employed on colloidal stabilizer.
 10. It is used extensively in making of candy other food products.
 It is dried hydrophilic colloidal substance extracted from Red
 Botanical Origin:
 Gelidium cartilagenium
 Gelidium amansii
 Family:
 Gelidiaceae
 Part Used:
 Agar is a dried colloids concentrate from a decoction of
various red algae. It is extracted from sea weeds.
 Habitat:-
 Commercial supply comes from the Eastern coast of Asia,
Europe, Japan, South Africa & New Zealand
 Production and Collection:
 The algae are taken from sea shore and dried, beaten & shaken to
remove the sand and also serving to remove salt
 Algae is then washed under the running water for 24 hour.
 Then extraction is made with steam heated digester with dilute
acids and then water for 30 hours.
 About one part of dry algae to 55 or 60 parts of H2O.
 This mucilaginous decoction is filtered while hot through linen.
 The hot extract is then cooled and congealed in ice machine.
 The water from algae completely separates as ice.
 About 300 lb ice blocks contain 5 lb of dry agar.
 These ice blocks are then crushed ,melted & filtered through the
vacuum filter.
 The moist agar flakes are dried in tall cylinder by air currents
then crushed to form fine powder
 Characteristics:
 Light yellow to orange grey, yellowish or colourless
 Mucilaginous taste
 Constituents:
 Agar is a calcium salt of strongly ionized acidic
polysaccharides composed of two fractions
 1. Agarose
 2. Agaro-pectin
 These contain the linear units of galacturonic acid.
 In agaro-pectin galacturonic acid contain sulphate esters
 1 part of agar when heated with 65 parts of water, it form
firm gel.
 Agaro-pectin is responsible for the viscosity of ager.
 Uses:
 1. As gel in bacteriologic culture media.
 2. Hydrates of agar form a non-irritating bulk and helps in the
peristaltic movements.
 3. It also act as Laxative
 4. Gelling agent for suppositories
 5. Surgical lubricant
 6. Emulsifying agent
 7. Tablet excipients, disintegrant
 8. As matrix in gel filtration.
 9. Gel chromatography
 10. In electrophoretic techniques
 11. As clarifying agent in BREWING for sizing fabrics and papers.
 It is a purified carbohydrate which is extracted from brown
sea weeds (algae) with weak/dilute alkali .
 Synonyms:
 Polymanuronic acid, Prota acid , Na Alginate, Kela acid,
 Botanical Origin:
 Macrocystis pyrifera
 Family:
 Lessoniaceae
 Part Used:
 Extract from all Species of brown sea weeds
 Habitat:
 It is harvested in temperate zone of Pacific ocean (Japan-
America), California, China
 Production:-
 Alginic acid is a hard, horny polysacchrone
 For the extraction of alginic acid, the dried milled sea weed is
 Alginic acid in cell wall----Extracted with Na-carbonate----form pasty
mass (Na-alginate)----dilute it----separate insoluble mass---- Algin separated
 Chemical Constituents
 Align chiefly consists of Sodium salt of Alginic acid and a linear polymer of
L-glucuronic acid and D-mannuronic acid
 Uses:-
 1. Suspending agent
 2. Thickening agent
 3. Tablet binder
 4. In food industry and confectionary (bakery, ice-creams, milk, chocolate)
Greek word “Pektikos” = congealed or curdled

 Pectin is hydrophilic colloidal substance which is obtained from

inner portion of the rind of citrus fruits with dil. Acid
 Composition
 Methoxylated polyglacturonic acid
 o 74% glacturonic acid
 o 67% methoxy group
 Gelling property of the pectin is due to number of
glacturonic acid
 Pharmaceutical Pectin
 It is chiefly obtained from citrus fruit (not additive)
 Commercial Pectin
 It is obtained as by-product from citrus canning industry.
 Sources
 Pectin obtained from fruits
 apples, 1–1.5%
 apricot, 1%
 cherries, 0.4%
 oranges 0.5–3.5%
 carrots approx. 1.4%
 citrus peels, 30%
 Production
 It is obtained from inner portion of the rind of citrus fruits with dil. Acid
 Non-citrus fruits are treated with dil. Acid and pectin can be precipitated with
 Characteristics
 Yellowish white powder
 Mucilaginous taste
 1 part of pectin is heated with 9 parts of water it forms a gel.
 It can be soluble in 20 parts of water
 Uses
 1. Suspending agent
 2. Protectant
 3. As anti-diarrheal in some preparation
 4. Gelling agent
 5. Thickener
 6. It enhances physiological action of GIT due to physical
and chemical action