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# Chapter 2

## Dynamic modeling of mechanical,

electrical, electro-mechanical
system
2.1 INTRODUCTION

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2.2 LAPLACE TRANSFORM REVIEW

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Partial-Fraction Expansion
 To find the inverse Laplace transform of a
complicated function, convert the function to a
sum of simpler terms for which the Laplace
transform for each term is known
 The result is called a partial-fraction expansion.
 If the order of the numerator is greater than or
equal to the order of the denominator, perform
the indicated division until a remainder whose
numerator of order less than the denominator is
obtained.

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Transfer function

## The transfer function of a linear system is defined

as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the
output variable to the Laplace transform of the
input variable, with all initial conditions
assumed to be zero.

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2.3 The TRANSFER FUNCTION

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EXAMPLE 2.4

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Dynamic modeling of
Mechanical System

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2.5 TRANSLATIONAL MECHANICAL SYSTEM
TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

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EXAMPLE 2.16: Transfer Function – One Equation of Motion

2.15a.

diagram

## Instrumentation and Control

Engineering
SOLUTION

STEP 1. Provide correct FBD and assume that the body is moving to
the right.

## Figure 2.16 a. Free-body diagram of mass, spring, and

Where: f(t)- applied force (input) in Newton
damper system; b. transformed free-body diagram
x(t)- displacement (output) in meter
Kx(t)-reaction force of the spring
fv dx(t)/dt-reaction force of the viscous damper
M d2x(t)/dt2- reverse effective force

Engineering
SOLUTION

## STEP 2. Summing forces equal to zero

M d2x(t)/dt2 + fv dx(t)/dt +Kx(t)=f(t)
Taking the Laplace transform,
Ms2X(s) +fvsX(s) + KX(s)= F(s)
(Ms2 + fvs + K)X(s)= F(s)
X(s)/F(s)= 1/(Ms2 + fvs + K)
Where: G(s)=X(s)/F(s)

## Note: Ms2 –Mechanical impedance of the mass

fvs - Mechanical impedance of the viscous damper
K- Mechanical impedance of the spring
Instrumentation and Control Engineering
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EXAMPLE 2.17: Transfer Function – Two Degrees of Freedom

## Example 2: Find the transfer function, X2(s)/ F(s), for the

system in figure 2.17(a).

## Figure 2.17 a. Two-degrees-of-freedom translational

mechanical system; b. block diagram
Instrumentation and Control
Engineering
EXAMPLE 2.17

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SOLUTION
1.Construct FBD of M1 due only to its own motion {refer to fig.
2.18 (a) }.
2. Construct FBD of M1 due only to motion of M2 {refer to fig 2.18
(b) }.
3. Combine fig 2.18 (a) and 2.19 (b).
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 for mass M2

## Figure 2.18 a.) Forces on M1 due only to motion of M1

b.) forces on M1 due only to motion of M2 c.) all
forces on M1
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Engineering
SOLUTION

## Figure 2.19 a. Forces on M2 due only to

motion of M2; b. forces on M2 due only to
motion of M1; c. all forces on M2
Instrumentation and Control
Engineering
SOLUTION

## Summing forces horizontal equal to zero,

[ M1s2 + (fv1 + fv3)s + (K1 + K2)] X1(s) - (fv3s + K2) X2(s)= F(s) (2.118a)

## Instrumentation and Control

Engineering
EXAMPLE 2.17

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EQUATIONS OF MOTION BY INSPECTION

Engineering
Assignment 1

## Problem: Find the transfer function, G(s)=X2(s)/F(s) for the

translational mechanical system shown in figure 2.21.

## Figure 2.21 Translational mechanical system for Skill-

Assessment
G(s)= (3s2.8 + 1)/ (s3 + 7s2 + 5s + 1)s

## Instrumentation and Control

Engineering
ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL SYSTEM TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

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EXAMPLE 2.19

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EXAMPLE 2.19

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EXAMPLE 2.19

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EXAMPLE 2.19

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EXAMPLE 2.19

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EXAMPLE 2.20

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EXAMPLE 2.20

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EXAMPLE 2.20

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EXAMPLE 2.20

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Assignment 2

## Problem: Find the transfer function, G(s)=θ2(s)/T(s), for the

translational mechanical system shown below.

## Answer: G(s)= 1/ (2s2 + s + 1)

Instrumentation and Control
Engineering
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2.7 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR
SYSTEMS WITH GEARS

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EXAMPLE 2.21

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EXAMPLE 2.21

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EXAMPLE 2.22

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EXAMPLE 2.22

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Assignment 3

## Problem: Find the transfer function, G(s)=θ2(s)/T(s), for the

translational mechanical system with gears shown below.

## Answer: G(s)= (1/2)/ (s2 + s + 1)

Instrumentation and Control
Engineering