Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 46

Chapter 2

Dynamic modeling of mechanical,


electrical, electro-mechanical
system
2.1 INTRODUCTION

2
2.2 LAPLACE TRANSFORM REVIEW

3
4
Partial-Fraction Expansion
 To find the inverse Laplace transform of a
complicated function, convert the function to a
sum of simpler terms for which the Laplace
transform for each term is known
 The result is called a partial-fraction expansion.
 If the order of the numerator is greater than or
equal to the order of the denominator, perform
the indicated division until a remainder whose
numerator of order less than the denominator is
obtained.

5
Transfer function

The transfer function of a linear system is defined


as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the
output variable to the Laplace transform of the
input variable, with all initial conditions
assumed to be zero.

6
2.3 The TRANSFER FUNCTION

7
8
EXAMPLE 2.4

9
Dynamic modeling of
Mechanical System

10
2.5 TRANSLATIONAL MECHANICAL SYSTEM
TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

11
EXAMPLE 2.16: Transfer Function – One Equation of Motion

Find the transfer Function, X(s)/F(s), for the system of figure


2.15a.

Figure 2.15 a. Mass, spring, and damper system; b. block


diagram

Instrumentation and Control


Engineering
SOLUTION

STEP 1. Provide correct FBD and assume that the body is moving to
the right.

Figure 2.16 a. Free-body diagram of mass, spring, and


Where: f(t)- applied force (input) in Newton
damper system; b. transformed free-body diagram
x(t)- displacement (output) in meter
Kx(t)-reaction force of the spring
fv dx(t)/dt-reaction force of the viscous damper
M d2x(t)/dt2- reverse effective force

Instrumentation and Control


Engineering
SOLUTION

STEP 2. Summing forces equal to zero


M d2x(t)/dt2 + fv dx(t)/dt +Kx(t)=f(t)
Taking the Laplace transform,
Ms2X(s) +fvsX(s) + KX(s)= F(s)
(Ms2 + fvs + K)X(s)= F(s)
X(s)/F(s)= 1/(Ms2 + fvs + K)
Where: G(s)=X(s)/F(s)

Therefore, G(s)=1/(Ms2 + fvs + K)

Note: Ms2 –Mechanical impedance of the mass


fvs - Mechanical impedance of the viscous damper
K- Mechanical impedance of the spring
Instrumentation and Control Engineering
15
EXAMPLE 2.17: Transfer Function – Two Degrees of Freedom

Example 2: Find the transfer function, X2(s)/ F(s), for the


system in figure 2.17(a).

Figure 2.17 a. Two-degrees-of-freedom translational


mechanical system; b. block diagram
Instrumentation and Control
Engineering
EXAMPLE 2.17

17
SOLUTION
1.Construct FBD of M1 due only to its own motion {refer to fig.
2.18 (a) }.
2. Construct FBD of M1 due only to motion of M2 {refer to fig 2.18
(b) }.
3. Combine fig 2.18 (a) and 2.19 (b).
4. Repeat steps 1 to 3 for mass M2

Figure 2.18 a.) Forces on M1 due only to motion of M1


b.) forces on M1 due only to motion of M2 c.) all
forces on M1
Instrumentation and Control
Engineering
SOLUTION

Figure 2.19 a. Forces on M2 due only to


motion of M2; b. forces on M2 due only to
motion of M1; c. all forces on M2
Instrumentation and Control
Engineering
SOLUTION

Summing forces horizontal equal to zero,

[ M1s2 + (fv1 + fv3)s + (K1 + K2)] X1(s) - (fv3s + K2) X2(s)= F(s) (2.118a)

-(fv3s + K2) X1(s) + [M2s2 + (fv2 +fv3)s + ( K2 + K3)] X2(s) = 0 (2.118b)

Instrumentation and Control


Engineering
EXAMPLE 2.17

21
EQUATIONS OF MOTION BY INSPECTION

Instrumentation and Control


Engineering
Assignment 1

Problem: Find the transfer function, G(s)=X2(s)/F(s) for the


translational mechanical system shown in figure 2.21.

Figure 2.21 Translational mechanical system for Skill-


Assessment
Answer: Exercise
G(s)= (3s2.8 + 1)/ (s3 + 7s2 + 5s + 1)s

Instrumentation and Control


Engineering
ROTATIONAL MECHANICAL SYSTEM TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

24
EXAMPLE 2.19

25
EXAMPLE 2.19

26
EXAMPLE 2.19

27
EXAMPLE 2.19

28
EXAMPLE 2.19

29
EXAMPLE 2.20

30
EXAMPLE 2.20

31
EXAMPLE 2.20

32
EXAMPLE 2.20

33
Assignment 2

Problem: Find the transfer function, G(s)=θ2(s)/T(s), for the


translational mechanical system shown below.

Answer: G(s)= 1/ (2s2 + s + 1)


Instrumentation and Control
Engineering
35
2.7 TRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR
SYSTEMS WITH GEARS

36
37
38
39
40
EXAMPLE 2.21

41
EXAMPLE 2.21

42
43
EXAMPLE 2.22

44
EXAMPLE 2.22

45
Assignment 3

Problem: Find the transfer function, G(s)=θ2(s)/T(s), for the


translational mechanical system with gears shown below.

Answer: G(s)= (1/2)/ (s2 + s + 1)


Instrumentation and Control
Engineering