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• Asma Tayyab (11486)

• Fatima Waheed (11029)
• Fatima Nasir (9586)
Difference between Renewable and
Non renewable energy resources
Renewable resources Non renewable resources
• Renewable energy is energy • Renewable energy is energy which
which is generated from natural is taken from the sources that are
sources i.e. sun, wind, rain, tides available on the earth in limited
and can be generated again and quantity and will vanish one day.
again as and when required. • It cannot be used again and
• It can be used again and again again but one day it will be
throughout its life. exhausted.
• It has low carbon emission and • It has high carbon emission and
hence environment friendly. hence not environment friendly.
• It is present in unlimited • It is present in limited quantity
quantity. and vanishes one day.
• Cost is low • Cost is high.
• The non-renewable energy
• Renewable energy resources resources are not pollution free.
are pollution free.
• Life of resources is finite and
• Life of resources is infinite. vanishes one day.
• It has high maintenance • It has low maintenance cost as
cost. compared with the renewable
energy resources.
• Solar energy, wind energy,
tidal energy etc are the • Coal, petroleum, natural gases
are the examples of non-
examples of renewable renewable resources
Wind energy
July 1887, Glasgow, Scotland
The first windmill for electricity production is built by Professor James
Blyth of Anderson's College, Glasgow (now Strathclyde University). The
professor experiments with three different turbine designs, the last of
which is said to have powered his Scottish home for 25 years.

Winter 1887 – Ohio, US

Professor Charles F. Brush builds a 12kW wind turbine to charge 408
batteries stored in the cellar of his mansion. The turbine, which ran for
20 years, had a rotor diameter of 50m and 144 rotor blades.
1890s – Askov, Denmark
Scientist Poul la Cour begins his wind turbine tests in a bid to bring electricity to the rural
population of Denmark. In 1903, Poul la Cour founded the Society of Wind Electricians and
in 1904 the society held the first course in wind electricity. La Cour was the first to discover
that fast rotating wind turbines with fewer rotor blades were most efficient in generating
electricity production.

1927 – Minneapolis, US
Joe and Marcellus Jacobs open the Jacobs Wind factory, producing wind turbine
generators. The generators are used on farms to charge batteries and power lighting.

The first vertical axis wind turbine, the Darrieus turbine, is invented by Frenchman George
Darrieus who in 1931 has it patented in the US. The design, often referred to as the
"eggbeater windmill", due to the appearance of its two or three blades, is still used today.
1931 – Yalta, former USSR
A precursor to the modern horizontal wind generator is used in Yalta, generating 100kW. The
turbine has a 30m tower and a 32% load factor, meaning it provides 32% of its potential energy
output, pretty good even by today's standards.

1941 – Vermont, US
The world's first megawatt wind turbine is built and connected to the power grid in Castleton,
Vermont. The turbine has 75-foot blades and weighs 240 tons. 1956 – Gedser, Denmark
The Gedser wind turbine is built by Johannes Juul, a former student of Poul la Cour. The
200kW, three-bladed turbine inspired many later turbine designs, and Juul's invention -
emergency aerodynamic tip breaks – is still used in turbines today. The turbine operated until
1967 and was refurbished in the mid 1970s at the request of Nasa.

1970s – Ohio, US
The United States government, led by Nasa, begins research into large commercial wind
turbines. Thirteen experimental turbines are put into operation and the research paves the
way for many of the multi-megawatt technologies used today.
1980 – New Hampshire, US
The world's first windfarm consisting of 20 turbines is built in New Hampshire. The windfarm
however, is a failure as the turbines break down and the developers overestimate the wind
resource. 1991 – Cornwall, UK
The UK's first onshore windfarm is opened in Delabole, Cornwall. The farm consists of 10 turbines
and produces enough energy for 2,700 homes.

2003 – north Wales, UK

The UK's first offshore windfarm is opened. North Hoyle offshore windfarm is located 7-8km off
the north Wales coast between Prestatyn and Rhyl and consists of 30 2mW turbines.

2007 - Stirling, UK
Installed capacity of wind power in the UK reaches 2gW, with the opening of the Braes O'Doune
windfarm, in Scotland, which produces 72mW of power.

The UK announced plans for thousands of new offshore wind turbines which could power every
home in Britain by 2020.
Wind energy and its working
The terms "wind energy" and "wind power" both describe the process by which the
wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines convert
the kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical power. This mechanical power
can be used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain or pumping water) or a
generator can convert this mechanical power into electricity.
A wind turbine turns energy in the wind into electricity using the aerodynamic
force created by the rotor blades, which work similarly to an airplane wing or
helicopter rotor blade. When the wind flows across the blade, the air pressure on
one side of the blade decreases. The difference in air pressure across the two sides
of the blade creates both lift and drag. The force of the lift is stronger than the drag
and this causes the rotor to spin. The rotor is connected to the generator, either
directly (if it's a direct drive turbine) or through a shaft and a series of gears (a
gearbox) that speed up the rotation and allow for a physically smaller generator.
This translation of aerodynamic force to rotation of a generator creates electricity.
Wind energy in Pakistan
The Pakistan Meteorological Department conducted a study in 2013
entitled "Wind Power Potential Survey of Coastal Areas of Pakistan",
which the Ministry of Science & Technology provided funding for. This
study enabled PMD to identify potential "wind corridors" where
economically feasible wind farm could be established. The Gharo-
Jhimpir wind corridor in Sindh was identified as the most lucrative site
for wind power plants.The wind power potential covered an area of
9700 sq.km with a gross wind power potential of 43000 MW.
1. Jhimpir Wind Power Plant:
The Jhimpir Wind Power Plant was developed in Jhimpir, Sindh by Zorlu Energy
Pakistan. The total cost of project is $136 million.[6] Completed in 2002, it has a
total capacity of 50 MW.
2. Artistic Energy (Pvt) Ltd.
Artistic Energy (Pvt) Ltd. setup 49.3 MW wind power project in Jhimpir Sindh. The
EPC contractor was Hydro-china. Artistic Energy (Pvt) Ltd was commissioned on
march 2018. It consists of 29 Wind turbines GE 1.7 MW each
3.Tapal Wind Farm
The Tapal wind farm is located at the province of Sindh. HydroChina, a subsidiary of
China Power Construction Corporation, is constructing the project. It will be run by
three local Pakistani companies. The deal is for 20 GW82 1.5MW turbine.
Applications of wind energy
• 1. The wind energy is used to propel the sailboats in river and seas to
transport men and materials from one place to another.

• 2. Wind energy is used to run pumps to draw water from the grounds
through wind mills.

• 3. Wind energy has also been used to run flourmills to grind the
grains like wheat and corn into flour.
4. Now-a-days wind energy is being used to generate electricity.
Wind energy may be considered as the world’s fastest growing energy source.
By the development of technology, wind power may become most economical
and environmental friendly source of electricity in many countries in the coming
10 to 20 years.
5. Transportation :
The power of the wind is used for propulsion in sailing vessels and sail boats
6. Sports:
A number of sports use wind energy as their source like Wind Surfing, Land
Surfing, Kite boarding
Advantages of wind energy
1. Wind Energy Is Renewable & Sustainable
Wind energy itself is both renewable and sustainable. The wind will never run out,
unlike reserves of fossil fuels (such as coal, oil, and gas.) This makes it a good choice
of energy for a sustainable power supply.
2. It’s Also Environmentally Friendly
Wind energy is one of the most environmentally friendly energy sources available
today. This is based on the simple reason that wind turbines don’t create pollution
when generating electricity.

Most non-renewable energy sources need to be burnt. This process releases gases
such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) into the atmosphere. These gases
are known to contribute to climate change. In contrast, wind turbines produce no
greenhouse gases when generating electricity.
3. It Can Reduce Fossil Fuel Consumption
Generating electricity from wind energy reduces the need to burn fossil fuel
alternatives such as coal, oil, and gas.
4. It Has A Small Footprint
Wind turbines have a relatively small land footprint. Although they can tower high
above the ground, the impact on the land at the base is minimal. Wind turbines
are often constructed in fields, on hills or out at sea. At these locations, they pose
hardly any inconvenience to the surrounding land. Farmers can still farm their
fields, livestock can still graze the hills and fishermen can still fish the sea. It Is Also
Low Maintenance
Wind turbines are fairly low in maintenance. A new wind turbine can last a long
time prior to it requiring any maintenance. Although older turbines can come up
against reliability issues, technological advancements are helping to improve
overall reliability.
6. Both Industrial & Domestic Wind Turbines Exist
Wind turbines aren’t just limited to industrial-scale installations (such as wind
farms.) They can also be installed on a domestic scale. As a result, many
landowners opt to install smaller, less powerful wind turbines. This can help to
provide a portion of a domestic electricity supply. Domestic wind turbines are
often coupled with other renewable energy technologies. You can often find them
installed alongside solar panels and geothermal heating systems.
7. The Wind Energy Industry Creates Jobs
The wind energy industry has boomed since wind turbines became commercially
available. As a result of this, the industry has created jobs all over the world. Jobs
now exist for the manufacturing, installation, and maintenance of wind turbines.
You can even find jobs in wind energy consulting. This is a job where specialist
consultants determine whether a wind turbine installation is going to be
Disadvantages of wind energy
1. The Wind Fluctuates
Wind energy has a similar drawback to solar energy in that it is not constant.
Although wind energy is sustainable and will never run out, the wind isn’t always
blowing. This can cause serious problems for wind farm developers. They will
often spend a significant amount of time and money investigating whether a
particular site is suitable for wind power.

For a wind turbine to be efficient, it needs to have an adequate supply of wind

energy. For this reason, we often find wind turbines on top of hills or out at sea. In
these locations, there are fewer land obstacles to reduce the force of the wind.
2. Installation is Expensive
Although costs are reducing over time, wind turbines are still expensive. First, an
engineer must carry out a site survey. This may involve having to erect a sample
turbine to measure wind speeds over a period of time. If deemed adequate, a wind
turbine then needs to be manufactured, transported and erected on top of a pre-
built foundation. All of these processes contribute to the overall cost of installing
wind turbines.
3. Wind Turbines Pose A Threat to Wildlife
We often hear that wind turbines pose a threat to wildlife – primarily birds and
bats. However, researchers now believe that they pose less of a threat to wildlife
than other manmade structures. Installations such as cell phone masts and radio
towers are far more dangerous to birds than wind turbines. Nevertheless, wind
turbines still contribute to mortality rates among bird and bat populations.
4. Wind Turbines Create Noise Pollution
One of the most common disadvantages of wind turbines is the noise pollution
they generate. You can often hear a single wind turbine from hundreds of meters
away. Combine multiple wind turbines with the right wind direction and the
audible effects can be much greater. This issue is one of the biggest impacts of
wind energy
5. They Also Create Visual Pollution
Another common drawback of wind turbines is the visual pollution they create.
Although many people actually like the look of wind turbines, others don’t. These
people see them as a blot on the landscape. This, however, tends to come down to
personal opinion. As we build more wind farms, public acceptance is becoming
more common.
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