Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 23

# REVIEW 2

FABRIC GEOMETRY
Prepared By
Pooja.B (17BMA030)

Guided By
Ms. Nirmala Devi.K
Introduction

Geometry

Fabric geometry

nts
nte
Geometric Models

Co
1 Introduction
GEOMETRY
 Geometry, a branch of mathematics, is the study of shapes, patterns,
and sizes and their relation to each other in space.
 It involves shapes like circles, lines, and triangles.
 Many textile designs use elements like color and line organization in
regular patterns.
 These patterns are often defined by geometry.
 So, in textile design, geometry is used to define how the design
elements are laid out and how they relate to each other.
FABRIC GEOMETRY
 Woven fabric technology is deeply rooted in geometry.
 A fabric consists of millions of fibers assembled together in a
particular geometry.
 Mutual interlacing of two sets of threads creates woven fabric.
 The manner of the mutual interlacing of threads defines the final
fabric structure.
 The property of a fabric greatly affected by its geometry.
Click add this section keywords detailed description of the contents of this paragraph
OBJECTIVES

##  Prediction of the maximum sett (density) of fabric and fabric dimensions

 Find out relationship between geometrical parameters (picks and ends)
 Prediction of mechanical properties by combining fabric and yarn
properties
 Understanding fabric performance (handle and surface effect).
GEOMETIC APPROACHES

##  In conventional approaches, the general character of fabrics was idealized

into simple geometrical forms (circle, ellipse, rectangle)
 They treated the micro-mechanics of fabrics on the basis of the unit-cell
approach, ie fabrics are considered as a repeating network of identical unit
cells in the form of crimp weaves and constant yarn cross-section in the
woven structure.
 By combining this kind of geometry with or without physical parameters
(material), mathematical deductions could be obtained.
2
THE PART Two

FABRIC GEOMETRIC
MODELS
By using circle, ellipse, rack-track approaches, four fabric
geometrical models are formed

## FABRIC GEOMETRIC MODELS

Pierce model Modified model Kemp’s race track model Hearle’s lenticular
(ellipse) (rectangle & circle) model
Mathematical notations for each model are given below:

## d = free circular-thread diameter

D = sum of circular diameters (d1 + d2)
a = major diameter of flattened thread
b = minor diameter of flattened thread
e = thread flattening coefficient (a/b)
h = height of crimp wave
T = fabric thickness (h1 + b1 or h2 + b2, whichever is greater)
p = average thread spacing for the fabric as a whole
n = average number of threads per unit length (n = 1/p)
K = cover factor
θ = maximum angle of the thread axis to plane of cloth in radius
l = length of thread axis between planes containing the axes of
lc = contact length of yarn
N = cotton count of yarn
title here
MODEL (Classical Model)
Click add this section keywords detailed description of the contents of this paragraph

## In this model, a two-dimensional unit cell of fabric was built by

superimposing linear and circular yarn segments to produce the desired
shaped.

 The yarns were assumed to be circular in cross-section and highly
incompressible, but perfectly flexible so that each set of yarns had a
uniform curvature imposed by the circular cross-sectional shape of
interlacing yarns.

 Geometrical parameters such as thread spacing (p), weave crimp,
PIERCE ELLIPTICAL MODEL
In more tightly woven fabrics, however, the inter-thread pressures setup during weaving
cause considerable thread flattening normal to the plane of cloth.

 Pierce recongized this and proposed an elliptic section theory as shown in Figure.

 Because such model would be too complex and laborious in operation, he adopted an
approximate treatment, which involved merely replacing the circular thread diameter
in his circular-thread geometry with minor diameter as shown in Figure

 This modified model is good for reasonable open fabric but cannot be applied for very
closed jammed fabric.
KEMP MODEL
 To overcome the jammed structure, Kemp proposed a racetrack
section to modified cross-section shape.

 The model consisted of a rectangle enclosed by two semi-
worked out by Pierce, to be applied to a flatted threads.

HEARLE MODEL
Parameters affecting fabric geometry
Fabric constructional parameters relate to the geometrical structure of the
fabric and are classified into primary and secondary parameters of fabric
geometry.

## Primary parameters of fabric geometry are:

• Yarn thickness,
• Weave factor and

Secondary woven fabric constructional parameters.
• Yarn crimp
• Fabric cover factor
• Fabric porosity
• Fabric mass
• Fabric thickness
• Fabric mass density
• Warp and weft tension
• Some fiber and yarn parameters have also effect on fabric structure and
geometry.
IMPORTANCE OF FABRIC GEOMETRY
Knowing the fabric geometry, various problems can be solved and
explained. Such as:
 design the fabric with a determined crimp