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Prepared By
Pooja.B (17BMA030)

Guided By
Ms. Nirmala Devi.K


Fabric geometry

Geometric Models

1 Introduction
 Geometry, a branch of mathematics, is the study of shapes, patterns,
and sizes and their relation to each other in space.
 It involves shapes like circles, lines, and triangles.
 Many textile designs use elements like color and line organization in
regular patterns.
 These patterns are often defined by geometry.
 So, in textile design, geometry is used to define how the design
elements are laid out and how they relate to each other.
 Woven fabric technology is deeply rooted in geometry.
 A fabric consists of millions of fibers assembled together in a
particular geometry.
 Mutual interlacing of two sets of threads creates woven fabric.
 The manner of the mutual interlacing of threads defines the final
fabric structure.
 The property of a fabric greatly affected by its geometry.
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The objectives of fabric geometry (math models for fabric) is to:

 Prediction of the maximum sett (density) of fabric and fabric dimensions

 Find out relationship between geometrical parameters (picks and ends)
 Prediction of mechanical properties by combining fabric and yarn
 Understanding fabric performance (handle and surface effect).

 In conventional approaches, the general character of fabrics was idealized

into simple geometrical forms (circle, ellipse, rectangle)
 They treated the micro-mechanics of fabrics on the basis of the unit-cell
approach, ie fabrics are considered as a repeating network of identical unit
cells in the form of crimp weaves and constant yarn cross-section in the
woven structure.
 By combining this kind of geometry with or without physical parameters
(material), mathematical deductions could be obtained.

By using circle, ellipse, rack-track approaches, four fabric
geometrical models are formed


Pierce model Modified model Kemp’s race track model Hearle’s lenticular
(ellipse) (rectangle & circle) model
Mathematical notations for each model are given below:

d = free circular-thread diameter

D = sum of circular diameters (d1 + d2)
a = major diameter of flattened thread
b = minor diameter of flattened thread
e = thread flattening coefficient (a/b)
h = height of crimp wave
T = fabric thickness (h1 + b1 or h2 + b2, whichever is greater)
p = average thread spacing for the fabric as a whole
n = average number of threads per unit length (n = 1/p)
c = thread crimp
K = cover factor
θ = maximum angle of the thread axis to plane of cloth in radius
l = length of thread axis between planes containing the axes of
consecutive cross threads
lc = contact length of yarn
N = cotton count of yarn
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MODEL (Classical Model)
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In this model, a two-dimensional unit cell of fabric was built by

superimposing linear and circular yarn segments to produce the desired

 The yarns were assumed to be circular in cross-section and highly
incompressible, but perfectly flexible so that each set of yarns had a
uniform curvature imposed by the circular cross-sectional shape of
interlacing yarns.

 Geometrical parameters such as thread spacing (p), weave crimp,
In more tightly woven fabrics, however, the inter-thread pressures setup during weaving
cause considerable thread flattening normal to the plane of cloth.

 Pierce recongized this and proposed an elliptic section theory as shown in Figure.

 Because such model would be too complex and laborious in operation, he adopted an
approximate treatment, which involved merely replacing the circular thread diameter
in his circular-thread geometry with minor diameter as shown in Figure

 This modified model is good for reasonable open fabric but cannot be applied for very
closed jammed fabric.
 To overcome the jammed structure, Kemp proposed a racetrack
section to modified cross-section shape.

 The model consisted of a rectangle enclosed by two semi-
circular ends and had the advantage that it allowed the
relatively simple relations of circular-thread geometry, already
worked out by Pierce, to be applied to a flatted threads.

Parameters affecting fabric geometry
Fabric constructional parameters relate to the geometrical structure of the
fabric and are classified into primary and secondary parameters of fabric

Primary parameters of fabric geometry are:

• Yarn thickness,
• Weave factor and
• Thread density.

Secondary woven fabric constructional parameters.
• Yarn crimp
• Fabric cover factor
• Fabric porosity
• Fabric mass
• Fabric thickness
• Fabric mass density
• Warp and weft tension
• Some fiber and yarn parameters have also effect on fabric structure and
Knowing the fabric geometry, various problems can be solved and
explained. Such as:
 design the fabric with a determined crimp
 know warp threads or weft threads will be broken first
 fabric thickness
 the characteristics of the fabric surface
 the length of warp and weft needed for a unit length fabric
 Understanding fabric performance (handle and surface effect)
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