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Foundations of
A. Education for
Conformity/Primitive Era
(7000-5000 B.C.)

Goal: To survive and

conform to the tribe
Type of Education:
Religious and Vocational

Contents to be studied:
Survival and superstitions
1. Show me and tell me method
2. Imitation and observation
3. Trial and Error
4. Enculturation
Agencies of Education:
Home and Environment
1. No Grading system
2. They are ritualistic

Conformity was achieved.
B. Education for Social
1. China (3000 B.C.-1900 A.D.)

Goal: To preserve and perpetuate

ancestral tradition
Content: Moral and Civic
Education according to
Confucian principles
Confucius – First teacher
in ancient China.
The Analects
Basis for the religiosity of the

Xia Shang Han

Yu the Liu Bang/
Great Liu Pang
Yellow Yellow Civil Service
River River Examination
(206 B.C.)
Yellow River
Huang ho/Huang he
The Cradle of Civilization
The Mother River
Civil Service Examination
2. India (3000 B.C.)

Goal: To preserve the tradition of the

Hindu Caste System
Hindu Caste
Law of Karma
and Dharma
“Do your Dharma, get
good Karma. Don’t do
your Dharma, get bad
Levels of the
Caste System Brahmans/Brahmins





Brahmans Priests and Scholars

Kshatriyas Rulers, Warriors, Soldiers

Vaisyas Merchants, traders, skilled workers
Sudras Slaves, farm workers, unskilled workers
Brahmans To study and teach the Vedas

Kshatriyas To maintain law and order

Vaisyas To engage in money-making activities
Sudras To serve the higher castes
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Brahmans Mahatma Gandhi

Sudras Harijans = Blessed
Untouchables Dalit = Oppressed
In 1950, the Indian Constitution has
forbidden discrimination against the

First Dalit President

K.R. Narayanan
3. Egypt (3000 B.C.-300 B.C.)

Goal: To preserve religious tradition

Egyptians – Polytheistic

Ra Horus Osiris
God of the Sun God of the Sky God of the Dead
Ancient system of
Picture Writing

Ancient Paper


Value of pi = 3.14

Pyramids, Palaces,
Dykes and Dams

Calendar composed
of 24/7/30/365

Ancient Name New Name Capital
Persia Iran Tehran
Mesopotamia Iraq Baghdad

Mesopotamia – The land

between two rivers

Tigris Euphrates
China India

Huangho Yangtze Indus Ganges

Ancient Name New Name
Gaul France
Hellas Greece
Nippon/Edo Japan
Choson/Gojoseon Korea
Phoenicia Lebanon
Ancient Name New Name
Ceylon Sri Lanka
Formosa Taiwan
Siam Thailand
Ma-i/Mina De Oro Mindoro
Parian Binondo
C. Education for the
Development of the
Individual/Spartan and
Athenian/Greek Education
(1600 B.C. -300 B.C.)
1. Spartan Education (3000 B.C.-300 B.C.)

Goal: To develop the best citizen that

is a soldier
1. Military Training
2. Art of Warfare
1. Military Training
2. Patriotism and Discipline
2. Athenian Education
(3000 B.C.-300 B.C.)

Goal: Perfection of the mind

and body
1. Liberal Education (Music, Arts,
Ancient Athenian Schools

Palaestra Didascaleum Grammata

Paedotribe Kitharist Grammatist
1. Development of all human capacities
2. Olympic Games
2016 Rio de Janeiro Athens 2004
2012 London Sydney 2000
2008 Beijing Atlanta 1996
The Sophists
The most famous sophist

“Man is the measure of

all things.”
Thales Socrates Plato Aristotle Alexander
of The
Thales of Miletus
First person to replace
myths with natural laws
Father of Western Philosophy
Gnothi Seauton
Socratic method
The Academy
The Republic
Father of Idealism
Man is a social animal
The Lyceum
Father of Realism
Man is composed of Body and Soul
Alexander the Great
University of Alexandria
Euclid, Archimedes,
D. Education for
Social Transformation/
Roman Education
(750 B.C. - 450 A.D.)
1. To develop an ideal citizen soldier
2. To teach lessons related to
everyday lives
3. Train students for citizenship
Roman School System

Ludi Magister Literatus

7-12 years old 12-16 years old
R, W and Grammar, History,
Calculation Mythology
Toga Virilis
One of the most far-thinking Roman educators

No to corporal punishment
Mastery of Learning
School holidays
1. The Laws of the Twelve tables
2. Latin language
3. Introduction of the Educational
E. Education for Humanitarianism/
Christian Education

Goal: To develop individuals

who possess all the virtues of
brotherly love.
Moral and Spiritual Education

Moral and Spiritual values
Church doctrines
Music in connection with Church worship
The Teacher of all
the Teachers

Jesus Christ
1. Conversational method
2. Parable Method
3. Proverbial or Gnomic method
Christian Schools
Catechumenal School for New converts

Catechetical School for Leadership training

Cathedral School for the Clergy

Conversion of more than one-half of the
world into Christianity
Foundations of
Traditional Modern
R.I.P. P.E.P.E.S.
Realism Essentialism
Idealism Progressivism
Pragmatism Social Reconstructionism
1. Realism
Believes that the world is made up of
actual, factual, substantial, tangible,
material entities.
Proponents: Aristotle
Harry S. Broudy
2. Idealism
Emphasizes the importance of the mind, soul and

Keywords: Ideas, Philosophy, Religion,

Values, Heroism
Proponent: Plato
3. Pragmatism
Believes that the world is an ever-changing entity

Keywords: Use, Apply, Ever-changing

Proponent: John Dewey

4. Perennialism
Believes that the principles of Education are never-

Keywords: Timeless, Ageless, Eternal,

Constant, Never-changing
Proponent: Robert Hutchins
5. Essentialism
Believes in the basic ideas all men ought to know.
Maintains the status quo

Keywords: Basics, Back-to-basics, 3Rs

Proponent: William Bagley

6. Progressivism
Focuses on the Individuality of the child.
Believes that Education must be flexible

Keywords: Child-centered, Individuality of the child

Experiential learning

Proponent: John Dewey

7. Existentialism
Believes that Education should enable man to make his
own choices in life
Children should know themselves and their place in

Keywords: Choices, Freedom

Proponent: Jean Paul Sartre

8. Social Reconstructionism
Aims to transform the society
Focuses on social problems

Keywords: Social problem, Society, Social order

Proponent: George Counts

Personal qualities of
Good Teachers

Ability to make sound decisions

Possess HOTS

Tolerance on others
Feel what others feel
Emotional Stability

Ability to be calm under pressure

Feel what others feel
Natural tendency to create new things
Finds solution to problems

Looks on both sides of the issue

Removes personal biases

Determined to succeed
“I can do it” mantra

Works together with other

Willing to share
Ability to survive in difficult
Optimistic and cheerful

Dependability, Sincerity and

1. Which influenced the military
training requirements among
students in the secondary and
tertiary levels?

A. Chinese C. Orientals
B. Greeks D. Romans
2. He was considered as the first
teacher in “ancient” China.

A. Confucius C. Mencius
B. Mo-Tzu D. Lao-Tzu
3. In order to make Roman education truly
utilitarian, how should the day-to-day lessons
be taught?

A. Taught in the student’s native dialect

B. Taught interestingly through the play way method
C. Related and linked to the events happening in
everyday life
D. Practiced at home under the guidance of their
respective parents
4. Which subject in the elementary
and likewise in the secondary schools
is similar to the goal of Rome to train
the students for citizenship?

A. Communication Arts C. Science

5. Spartan education provided much attention and
time for the art of war and the training of soldier-
citizens. Hence, the Spartan curricula consisted of
military exercises in services for the state.
Athenian education, on the other hand stressed
individual excellence, hence aimed to provide:

A. Moral training and emphasized virtues to develop

B. Learners with training in harsh discipline
C. Full-rounded development to fight as soldiers
D. Control of training of children
6. Giving education the highest budgetary
allocation, the Philippine government
recognizes the possible contribution of its
future citizens to the national development
goals of the Philippines society. Which stressed
this goal of education for social

A. Athenian education C. Greek education

B. Followers of Christ D. Roman education
7. The main objective of this period of
education is to develop individuals who
possess all the virtues of brotherly love. It also
believes Jesus as the teacher of the teachers,
what is it?

A. Education for Humanitarianism

B. Education for the Development of the Individual
C. Education for Utilitarianism
D. Education for Spiritual Discipline
8. Which of the following is the aim of our
education during the Commonwealth

A. Designed after Japanese education

B. Patterned after the American curriculum
C. Predominantly religious
D. Purely nationalistic and democratic
9. Which move liberalized access to education
during the Spanish period?

A. The establishment of at least one primary school

for boys and girls in each municipality
B. The hiring of tribal tutors to teach children
C. The provision of vocational training for school age
D. The education of illiterate parents
10. The “Paaralan sa Bawat
Barangay” takes its roots in the
establishment of one primary school
in every municipality as mandated by:

A. The Educational Decree of 1863

B. The Education Act of 1901
C. The Education Act of 1982
D. The Education Act of 477
11. Which feature was TRUE of the
Philippine Educational System
during the Spanish regime?

A. Vernacular as medium of instruction

B. Separation of Church and State
C. Emphasis on religious instruction
D. Establishment of a normal school
12. The Philippine Educational System was established on
January 21, 1901 through Education Act of 1901. With the
issuance of the Act, President McKinley instructed the
Philippine Commission to have English as the common
language of the people. The main reason for the one-language
policy is to:

A. Promote English as a universal language

B. Acknowledge that English is the language of business, science and
technology and higher education
C. Unify the regions since a great number of languages were spoken
throughout the country.
D. Propagate the use of English as the language of the American
occupying the Philippines during the time.
13. What factor contributed to the great
demand for teachers during the American

A. Rationalist period for the next generation

B. American literacy modelling
C. Democratic tutoring of the country
D. Opening of the free public education
14. The first American teachers in
the Philippines were:

A. Soldiers
B. Graduates of the normal school
C. Missionaries
D. Elementary graduates
15. If today we have an oversupply of teachers
in the country, in the past we had shortage.
When did we have a shortage of teachers?

A. In 1901 when a highly centralized public school

was established
B. In 1863 when primary schooling was made
C. In 1943 when the Japanese created the Military of
D. In the 70’s when teachers sought for greener
pasture abroad
16. Who were the Thomasites?

A. The soldiers who doubted the success of the

public educational system to be set in the
B. The first American teacher recruits to help
establish the public educational system in the
C. The first religious group who came to the
Philippines on boards the US transports Thomas
D. The devotees to St. Thomas Aquinas who came to
17. Which of the following is the
focus of the Japanese education in
the Philippines

A. Democratic ideals and nationalism

B. Love and service to one’s country
C. Religion and love for Asian brothers
D. Vocational and health education
18. The adoption of a national language
by the 1987 Constitution is designed
primarily to:

A. Do away with colonial mentality

B. Officially adopt Tagalog as a national
C. Facilitate communication among diverse
linguistic groups
D. Counteract elitism
19. The main purpose of compulsory
study of the Constitution is to:

A. Acquaint students with the historical

development of the Philippine Constitution
B. Develop students into responsible, thinking
C. Deprivation of Filipino schools
D. Community’s lack of sense of co-ownership
20. Which program of the
Department of Education is an
offshoot of the Filipino Bayanihan

A. Brigada Eskwela
B. Basic Education Curriculum
C. Every Child a Reader Program
D. Child-Friendly School Program
21. Which curricular move served to
strengthen the spiritual and ethical

A. Integration of creative thinking in all subject

B. Introduction of Values Education as a
separate subject
C. Reducing the number of subject areas into
skills subject
D. Re-introducing Science as a subject in
Grade 1
22. Which DepEd test do out-of-school
youths and adults take to enable them to
enroll in college if they pass it?

A. Accreditation and Equivalency Test

B. National Achievement
C. National Secondary Achievement Test
D. National College Entrance Examination
23. The stress on meritocracy was
a strong influence of ________

A. Shintoist C. Buddhist
B. Confucian D. Taoist
24. The encouragement of
spontaneity in the classroom is in
line with the teaching of:

A. Lao Tsu C. Confucius

B. Mencius D. Mohammed
25. Religious rituals in the classroom
and in the school programs prove the
deep natural religiosity of the Filipinos.
Which philosophy has greatly contributed
to this tradition?

A. Buddhism C. Hinduism
B. Confucianism D. Islam
26. Which philosophy influenced
the cultivation of reflective and
meditative skills in teaching?

A. Confucianism C. Taoism
B. Existentialism D. Zen Buddhism
27. The teacher’s teaching philosophy is
reflected by which of the following?
Choice of teaching methods
Choice of circle of friends
Choice of how to use leisure time

A. I only
B. II only
C. I and II
D. I, II and III
28. Which educational philosophy is
achieved when the teacher is able to
develop intrinsically motivated learners
through experiential learning?

A. Essentialism C. Progressivism
B. Constructivism D. Behaviorism
29. When the teacher is convinced that it
is best to teach the students the skill to
adapt to change since change is the only
thing permanent in this world, he/she
subscribes to which philosophy of

A. Realism C. Pragmatism
B. Existentialism D. Idealism
30. Which philosophy of education is
achieved when a teacher mainly focuses
on developing essential skills and the
basics of literacy?

A. Perennialism C. Constructivism
B. Progressivism D. Essentialism
SITUATIONAL: In a faculty meeting, the principal told
his teachers: We need to improve our school
performance in the National Achievement Test. What
should we do? The teachers gave varied answers as

I. Let’s give incentives and rewards to students who get a

rating of 85%
II. Let’s teach them to accept complete responsibility for
their performance
III. Let’s make the school environment conducive for
IV. Let’s make use of the experiential methods of teaching
31. On which educational philosophy is
response #1 anchored?

A. Behaviorism
B. Progressivism
C. Existentialism
D. Essentialism
32. Which response/s come/s from a

A.1 and 3
B.2 and 4
C.1 and 2
D.3 and 4
33. Which philosophy has the
educational objective to indoctrinate
Filipinos to accept the teachings of the
Catholic Church which is to foster faith in

A. Realism C. Idealism
B. Pragmatism D. Existentialism
34. Scouting and Citizen’s Army Training
(CAT) gave training in character-building,
citizenship training, etc. which leads to the
creation of a new social order and a new
eventually. What philosophy supports this?

A. Existentialism C. Progressivism
B. Perennialism D. Social reconstructionism
35. Virtue as one component in the teaching
of Rizal as a course focuses on the teaching of
good and beauty in God. What philosophy
supports this?

A. Existentialism C. Idealism
B. Social Reconstructionism D. Progressivism
36. Principal A shares this thought with her
teachers: Subject matter should help students
understand and appreciate themselves as
unique individuals who accept complete
responsibility for their thoughts, feelings, and
actions. From which philosophy is this thought

A. Perennialism
B. Existentialism
C. Progressivism
D. Essentialism
37. The progressivists emphasized the
individuality of the child. What is the
concern of the reconstructionist?

A. Experiential learning C. Social problem

B. Socialization D. Roman
38. Teacher Mica says: “If is billiard that
brings students out of the classroom, let us
bring it into the classroom. Perhaps, I can use
it to teach Math.” To which philosophy does
Teacher Mica adhere?

A. Essentialism C. Progressivism
B. Idealism D. Reconstructionism
39. Which of the following is the role of the
teacher from the perennialist perspective?

A. To assist the learner to clarify his/her value

priorities through self-analysis.
B. To give, interpret, or analyze complete
information to the student
C. To expose the learner to up-to-date information
about Science and Math.
D. To reveal the wisdom of the ages such as those
contained in the Bible/Koran.
40. The teacher who believes that it is better
to use the old and traditional methods than to
experiment with new techniques in classroom
teaching adheres to the philosophy of

A. Existentialism
B. Naturalism
C. Progressivism
D. Essentialism
41. A philosophy that believes in prior
learning or what the learners already
know is ____________.

A. Constructivism C. Essentialism
B. Naturalism D. Behaviorism
42. Behaviorism is a philosophy that has been
anchored on the theories that relate to

I. Trial and error

II. Stimulus and response
III. Brain and thinking

A. I, II and III
B. I only
C. II only
D. I and II
43. When we convince our students that
pleasure is not the only good in life, we
object to the teachings of:

A.Skepticism C. Epicureanism
B.Stoicism D. Humanism
44. Teacher Nancy is directed to pass an
undeserving student with a death threat. Which
advise will a utilitarian give?

A. Don’t pass him. You surely will not like someone to give
you a death threat in order to pass
B. Pass the student. That will be off use to the student, his
parents and you.
C. Pass the student. Why suffer the threat?
D. Don’t pass him. Live by your principle of justice. You will
get reward, if not in this life, in the next!
45. Which of the following is NOT a function
of the school?

A. Changing cultural practices

B. Development of attitudes and skills
C. Reproduction of species
D. Socialization among children
46. Homeroom adviser always emphasizes
the importance of cleanliness of the body.
Children are taught how to wash their hands
before and after eating. What is this practice

A. Folkway C. Mores
B. Laws D. Social norm
47. Which of the following school teacher’s
traits is indicated when teachers conduct
themselves with respect maintaining proper
ethics and decorum inside and outside the

A.Service C. Self-worth
B.Professionalism D. Quality teaching
48. What is the general quality is lacking in a
teacher who is moody, loner, easily giving up,
with poor interpersonal relationship?

A. Cooperativeness C. Buoyancy
B. Reliability D. Fairness
49. By being able to hold her anger even
when provoked, Teacher Allan shows his
personal quality of _____________.

A. Emotional Stability C. Compassion

B. Cooperativeness D. Fairness
50. Are you a person someone can lean on?
Are you honest and sincere in words and
action? Are you consistent in your actions and
responses to different situations? What
personal quality do you possess?

A. Intelligence C. Reliability
B. Innovativeness D. Buoyancy