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The Microprocessor

EL 224

Introduction

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Introduction
• The controlling unit of µprocessor, laid out on a tiny silicon
chip & containing the logical elements for handling data,
performing calculations, carrying out stored instructions
e.t.c.

– µ = small, Processor = Execution

• An embedded system.
• Not only used in computers, see page 13 table 1.4-1 for
applications.

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Evolution
• Mechanical Age
– Ancient concept, e.g. Abacus, Blaise Pascal’s
calculator (1642) like a car’s odometer, Jaquard’s
loom (punched card system)
• Electrical age
• Driven by the invention of electric motor.
– Electrical versions of the geared mechanical
computers, Bomar brain, Zuse Z3 (electromechanical
computer), vacuum tube based Electronic Numerical
Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC)
• Electronic Age
– Driven by invention of transistor in 1947, invention of
integrated circuit in 1958 and first microprocessor in
1971 3
Evolution
• Advances in IC technology lead to ability
to integrate larger numbers of logic gates
on a single chip.
– SSI (12 gates to be integrated)
• Provides basic logic functions AND, OR INVERT.
• Basic storage elements D & JK FFs.
– MSI (13 to 99 gates or equivalent integrated).
• Limited number of pins of an IC therefore
interconnection was necessary.
• Functions implemented are based on function
appearing frequently with SSI design.

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Evolution (2)
– LSI (100 or more logic gates on a single chip).
• Expensive that’s why function implemented has to
be one that will find widespread application.

– Evolution from 4004 to 80386A (1971 to1985


respectively)

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µprocessor Systems
• Conventional Computer System.

CPU
Input Output
CONTROL

ALU

System
Buses

Memory

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µprocessor Systems (3)
• The computer system consist of number of
subsystems interconnected with each
other by paths (system bus) that transfer
information between subsystems.
• CPU.
– Control the operation of the computer system
by executing a sequence of instructions.
– These instructions stored in the computer
memory constitute the program.
– Instructions are stored as binary information
patterns of logic 1s & 0s. 9
µprocessor Systems (4)
• Control section.
– Clocked sequential machine that controls all
the data transfer and transformation.
– Functions,
• Decoding of instructions.
• Carries out operations specified by the
instructions.
• The operations may transfer or transform data
value which take place at ALU.

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µprocessor Systems (5)
• Arithmetic & Logic Unit (ALU).
– Execute fundamental arithmetic & logic
operations.
– All functions are operated by the input of the
data.
• Programming
– Determining the particular sequence of
operation to implement a desired function.

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µprocessor Systems (6)
• Bussed structure.
– Bus is a group of connections having common
functions.

µP ROM RWM INPUT OUTPUT

SYSTEM BUS

1) Address bus.
2) Data bus.
3) Control bus.
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µprocessor Systems (7)
• Two conceptual views of subsystems.

Bus
Interface REG i

REG i+1
Primary
Functions

REG i+n

All subsystems consists of logic required to implement


the primary functions of the subsystems & logic required
to interface the primary function to the system bus.
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µprocessor Systems (8)
• Each subsystem can be viewed as a collection of
registers.
– Operational registers.
• Fundamental to the sequential operation of the µP
or to the transformation of data.
– Storage registers.
• Store the binary representation of the program and the data it
processes.
• Each register is uniquely identified by a unique ID
number called address.

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µprocessor Systems (9)
Data Input Data output
Processing or
Execution

– This is accomplished by µP executing


instructions from the program stored in its
memory
• Since the program is stored in memory (RWM or
ROM), therefore the above figure can be viewed
as,
– Transferring the data.
– Transforming the data in operational registers.

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µprocessor Systems (10)
• Therefore system bus is divided into three
parts,
– Address bus
• Used by µP to specify a memory or I/O register
that will be involved in data transfer.
– Data bus
• The data is transferred on the data bus.
– Control bus
• The signals that control & synchronize the
operation of the subsystems are provided by the
control bus.
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µprocessor Systems (11)
• Address bits are directly proportional to
the number or registers that can exist.
• More data can be transferred if the
number of data bits are increased.

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Address Bus and No. of Bits
How many address bits n are required to
access 64K of locations?
2n = 64K  2n = 64*1024 (n = no of bits).
Take log on both sides:
n log 2 = log (64*1024).
n = log(64*1024) / log 2
n = 16

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• A µP program consists of a sequence of
binary words stored in memory.
• A program can be written directly in
machine language (1s & 0s), the form in
which it is stored in memory.
– This method is adequate for a small program
but it becomes very time consuming & error
prone as the program size & complexity
increases.
• Program writing & interpretation are
simplified by an assembly language (ADD,
SUB, MOV, e.t.c.).
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• To convert assembly language to the
machine language assemblers are used.
• A number of µPs have available programs
called compilers, which allow system
designer to write program in high level
language (FOTRAN, C, PASCAL e.t.c.)

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True N bit processor
• Contains
– N bit data bus
– N bit ALU
– N bit storage registers

• Can only give true N bit performance

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Programming model
• All internal registers of a processor that
can be manipulated using software.
• In the 8086 these are AX,BX,CX,DX

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