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# • Learning & Competencies:

## The learners to: Determine if a molecule is polar or non-

polar given its structure .
Specific & Learning Outcomes
At the end of the lesson, the learners shall be able to:
• Define electronegativity
• Find the electronegativity of elements in the periodic table
List of important terms that learners
will encounter:
•Electronegativity .Covalent bond
•Valence electron . Miscible
•Dipole . Immiscible
Experiment Title:
Polarity Experiment
Materials:
1. Water
2. vinegar
3. Oil
4. Gasoline
5. Food coloring
6. Candle dye
7. Glass
8. Stirring rod
Procedure
• Mix the following samples well with a spoon and observe their reactions. Stir the
mixture.
• Adding color to the solutions will make it easier to see the different results. Be
sure to use contrasting colors.
1. Water + vinegar
2. Water + oil
3. Water + gasoline
4. Oil + vinegar
5. Oil + gasoline
•Samples with oil and gasoline should first be
mixed with dishwashing liquid before disposing
down the sink.
•Why certain combinations mix better than others?
•Group the samples together according to how well
they mix.
•Predict the results of the experiment as they mix
oil and water. They should recall simple chores
they do at home such as washing out oil from
pans.
•Introduce the two factors that determine the
polarity of molecules. These are:
•The polarity of the bonds between atoms
which can be studied based on
electronegativity, and
•The geometrical shape of the molecule which
can be predicted via the valence shell
electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory.
•Suggest that water and vinegar can
be grouped together while oil and
gasoline belong to another group.
These substances can be classified as
polar and non-polar substances. The
difference in polarity explains why
certain combinations mix and not
others.
on properties of elements found in the
periodic table such as boiling points,
melting points, oxidation number.
Point out that one of the properties
found in the periodic table is the
electronegativity of elements.
• Electronegativity (EN) - Measure of the relative
tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when
chemically combined with another atom. The higher the
value of electronegativity, the more it tends to attract
electrons toward itself.
• Polar covalent bonds occur when electron pairs are
unequally shared. The difference in electronegativity
between atoms is significant. Examples of compounds
having polar covalent bonds are:
• HCl EN of H = 2.1 EN of Cl = 3.0 ΔEN = 0.9
• HF EN of H = 2.1 EN of F = 4.0 ΔEN = 1.9
•Have the learners familiarize
themselves with the periodic table.
Let them find the EN value of several
elements. Have them determine the
most electronegative element and
the least electronegative element.
•Bond Polarity (20 minutes)
The separation of charges makes the bond
polar. It creates an electric dipole. Dipole refers
to “two poles,” meaning there is a positive and a
negative pole within a molecule. Elements with
the higher EN value become the partial negative
pole while elements with the lower EN value
become the partial positive pole. This makes the
molecule a polar molecule
• Non-polar covalent bonds occur when electron pairs are shared
equally or the difference in electronegativity between atoms is
less than 0.5. Examples of substances having non-polar covalent
bonds are:
• H2 EN of H = 2.1 ΔEN = 0.0
( NON-POLAR MOLECULE; not a dipole )
• Cl2 EN of Cl = 3.0 ΔEN = 0.0
(NON-POLAR MOLECULE; not a dipole)
• F2 EN of F = 4.0 ΔEN = 0.0
( NON-POLAR MOLECULE; not a dipole )
• HI EN of H = 2.1 EN of I = 2.5 ΔEN = 0.4
(POLAR MOLECULE; a dipole)
Determine if the bond between
elements are polar covalent or
non-polar covalent.
Seatwork:
CH4 CF4
• CH4
EN of H = 2.1 EN of C = 2.5 ΔEN = 0.4
Non polar covalent bond
• CF4
EN of C = 2.5 EN of F = 4.0 ΔEN = 1.5
Polar covalent bond
CF4
Give the general rule that “like dissolves like” or “like
mixes with like.” This refers to substances being able
to mix due to their same polarity. In the experiment,
water and vinegar mixed because they are both polar
substances while gasoline and oil are non-polar
substances. Oil and water, oil and vinegar, gasoline
and water, and vinegar and gasoline do not mix
because their polarities are different.
•Molecules are polar or non-
polar based on the type of
covalent bond.
•One of the most practical
manifestations of polarity is solubility
and miscibility. Solubility refers to the
ability of a solute to dissolve in a
certain amount of solvent. Miscibility
is the ability of two liquids to mix in
all proportions.
Quiz:

O2 HBr
•O2
EN of O = 3.4 ΔEN = 0.0
Non polar covalent bond
•HBr
EN of H= 2.1 EN of Br = 2.8 ΔEN =
0.7
Polar covalent bond