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LOOKING BACK AT HUMAN

BIOCULTURAL AND SOCIAL


EVOLUTION
BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL EVOLUTION

What does it represent? How does it explain man’s


development?
LOOKING AT EVOLUTION AS MAN’S LINEAR
PROGRESSION

• Evolution is a natural process of biological changes


occurring in a population across successive generation
(Banaag, 2012).
• Evolution helps us identify and analyze man’s physiological
development which is important in his subsistence.
The evolution of man became an important concern in
the emergence of different societies.

Early man’s development serves as an avenue in


analyzing the progress of our society.

All of the human’s social drives developed long before


he developed intellectually. They are, therefore,
instinctive (mother-love, compassion, cooperation,
curiosity, inventiveness and competitiveness are ancient
and embedded in human).
SPECIES CHARACTERISTICS
Homo habilis Species with a brain of a Broca’s area which is
“Handy man”, associated with speech in modern humans and was
was given in the first to make stone tools.
1964. The ability to make and use tools is a unique
quality to humans such that the species is
recognized to be the first true human. Lived 2.4 to
1.4 million years ago.
Homo rudolfensis Species characterized by a longer face, larger
molar and premolar teeth, and having a larger
braincase compared to habilis particularly larger
frontal lobes, areas of the brain that processes
information. The species lived about 1.9 million to
Homo Erectus The species name means “Upright Man” with
body proportions similar to that of modern
humans. Lived 1.89 to 143,000 years ago;
adapted to hot climates and mostly spread in
Africa and Asia. They were the first hunters with
improvised tools such as axes and knives, and
were the first to produce fire.
Homo Species with large brow ridge and short wide
heidelbergenesis bodies that lived about 700,000 to 200,000 years
ago in Europe and Africa. They were the first of
early human species to live in colder climates,
first to hunt large animals on routine basis using
spears, and first to construct human shelters
Homo floresiensis Species nicknamed “Hobbit” due to their small
stature with a height of more or less 3feet and
lived 95,000 to 17,000 years ago in the island
of Flores, Indonesia along with other dwarfed
animal species.

Homo Sapiens The species name means “Wise Man” that


appeared form 200,000 years ago. The present
human race belongs to this species.
Homo sapiens Subspecies with short yet stocky in body build
neanderthalens adapted to winter climates especially in icy cold
is places in Europe and Asia. The subspecies. Also
known as “ Neanderthal Man,” is the closest relative
of modern humans. The first to practice burial of their
dead, hunting and gathering food, and sewing
clothes from animal skin using bone needles. They
lived about 200,000 to 28,000 years ago.

Homo sapiens Subspecies known as Cro-Magnon characterized to be


sapiens anatomically modern human and lived in the last Ice
Age of Europe from 40,000 to 10,000 years ago. They
were the first to produce art in cave paintings and
crafting decorated tool and accessories.
MAN’S CULTURAL EVOLUTION
CULTURAL Time Frame Cultural Development
PERIOD
Paleolithic Age Traditionally • Use of simple pebble tools
(Old Stone Age) coincide with the • Learned to live in caves
first evidence of • Discovered the use of fire
tool construction • Developed small sculptures;
and use by and monumental painting,
Hemosome 2.5 incised designs, and reliefs
million years ago on the walls of caves
• “food-collecting cultures”
Neolithic Age Occurred  Stone tools were shaped by
(New Stone Age) sometime polishing or grinding.
about 10,000  Settlement in permanent
BCE villages
 Dependence on domesticated
plants or animals
 Appearance of such crafts as
pottery and weaving
 “Food-producing cultures”
PALEOLITHIC AGE NEOLITHIC AGE

Unpolished Stone Polished Stone


Tools Tools

Hunting and Domestication of


Gathering plants and
animals
Living in
Nomadic way of permanent
living places
CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN SOCIETY

1. It is a social system.
2. A society is relatively large
3. A society recruits most of its members from within.
4. A society sustains itself across generations.
5. A society’s members share a culture.
6. A society occupies a territoty.