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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION

WELCOME

COURSE TUTOR

TREVOR MYERS

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION

COURSE DETAILS
COURSE TIMES
BREAK TIMES
SMOKING POLICY

HOMEWORK
QUESTIONS

PRACTICAL

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
EXAMINATION DETAILS
2 WRITTEN PAPERS, EACH ONE CONSISTING OF
NARRATIVE AND MULTI-CHOICE QUESTIONS.

PRACTICAL, USE OF GAUGES ETC.

ORAL EXAM, 1 TO 1 DISCUSSION

CLOSED BOOK EXAM

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
PRACTICAL EXAMINATION
IDENTIFICATION AND USES OF ABRASIVES
IDENTIFICATION OF RUST GRADES
IDENTIFICATION OF PREPARATION GRADES
MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE PROFILE
MEASUREMENT OF DFT’S, USING BANANA GAUGES
IDENTIFICATION OF COATING FAULTS
IDENTIFICATION OF RANDOM TEST EQUIPMENT
IDENTIFICATION OF VARIOUS MATERIALS
USE OF DEWPOINT CALCULATOR, AND APPLICATION
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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
CORROSION THEORY

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
CORROSION THEORY

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
CORROSION THEORY

THE CORROSION TRIANGLE


ELECTROLYTE

ANODE CATHODE
Shows electron circuit

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
CORROSION THEORY

ANODES CORRODE. THE COMBINATION OF


ELEMENTS ( OXIDATION) TAKES PLACE AT THE
ANODE.

CATHODES ARE PROTECTED, HYDROGEN IS


EVOLVED AT THE CATHODE AS THE ELECTROLYTE
DISSOCIATES INTO POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE
IONS

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
HYGROSCOPIC (OSMOTIC) BLISTERS
TINY, PIN HEAD
SIZE, WATER
FILLED BLISTERS.
CAUSED BY
HYGROSCOPIC
SALTS

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
CORROSION THEORY
3 FACTORS NEEDED FOR CORROSION TO OCCUR

1. ANODE, a positively charged area.

2. CATHODE, a negatively charged area.

3. ELECTROLYTE, a substance which will conduct a


current and be broken down by it.
IE. WILL DISSOCIATE INTO POSITIVE AND
NEGATIVE IONS
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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
BI-METALLIC CORROSION

WHEN 2 DIFFERENT METALS ARE IN DIRECT CONTACT


OR, JOINED BY A CONDUCTIVE WIRE IN AN
ENVIRONMENT WHERE AN ELECTROLYTE IS PRESENT,
ONE OF THE METALS WILL CORRODE.

THIS IS DEPENDANT ON THE POSITION IN THE


GALVANIC LIST
THE POSITION IN THE LIST DETERMINES WHICH
METAL BECOMES THE ANODE, THE DISTANCE
BETWEEN THEM DETERMINES THE POTENTIAL
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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
BI-METALLIC CORROSION

ZINC ANODE

MILD STEEL
CATHODE

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PREPARATION

WHY ?
TO REMOVE CONTAMINANTS IN ORDER TO PROVIDE A
SURFACE TO WHICH THE PAINT WILL READILY
ADHERE

TO PROVIDE A LONGER SERVICE LIFE FROM THE


COATING

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
2 FACTORS FOR CONSIDERATION
DEGREE OF CLEANLINESS

DEGREE OF ROUGHNESS
OR SURFACE PROFILE

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PREPARATION METHODS

• DRY ABRASIVE BLAST CLEANING


• WET BLASTING
• HAND AND POWER TOOL CLEANING
• FLAME CLEANING
• PICKLING (CHEMICAL CLEANING)
• VAPOUR DEGREASING
• WEATHERING

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PREPARATION BY DRY ABRASIVE BLASTING
ABRASIVES
PROFILE AND ADHESION
PROFILE MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT
RUST GRADES AND DEGREE OF CLEANLINESS

EQUIPMENT

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PREPARATION
DRY ABRASIVE BLASTING ABRASIVES
COPPER SLAG.
EXPENDABLE. USE
ONCE ONLY, IT
SHATTERS ON
IMPACT. IT IS
NON METALLIC

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PREPARATION
DRY ABRASIVE BLASTING, ABRASIVES
CONTAMINATED
COPPER SLAG.
MUST NOT BE RE-
USED.

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PREPARATION
DRY ABRASIVE BLASTING, ABRASIVES

GARNET. MINERAL,
CAN BE EXPENDABLE
OR CAN BE RE-
CYCLED , AS
DESIRED. MUST BE
CLEANSED BEFORE
RE-USE

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PREPARATION
DRY ABRASIVE BLASTING ABRASIVES

METALLIC GRIT.
MUST BE RECYCLED
FOR ECONOMIC
REASONS. NOT
USED FOR SITE
WORK MUST BE
CLEANSED BEFORE
RE-USE

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
DRY ABRASIVE BLASTING ABRASIVES

METALLIC SHOT
USED IN
ENCLOSED
SYSTEMS, NEEDS
TO BE CLEANSED
BEFORE RE-USE.
GRADUALLY
WEARS DOWN
CYCLE BY CYCLE.

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
DRY ABRASIVE BLASTING ABRASIVES
METALLIC GRIT AND
SHOT MIXED. RATIO
DEPENDS ON SPEC. AS
DOES THE PARTICLE
SIZES. USED IN
ENCLOSED SYSTEMS.
GRIT CUTS THE
PROFILE, SHOT
CONTROLS THE PEAKS

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
DRY ABRASIVE BLASTING ABRASIVES
WALNUT SHELL.
AGRICULTURAL
BY-PRODUCT, NOT
USED ON STEEL.
AS WITH OTHER
ABRASIVES, IT IS
AVAILABLE IN
VARIOUS
PARTICLE SIZES

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B.G.A.S. PAINTING INSPECTION
DRY ABRASIVE BLASTING ABRASIVES
PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION, SIEVES TO BS 410

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
PROFILE MEASUREMENT SURFACE PROFILE NEEDLE
GAUGE

SET THE GAUGE AT ZERO


BY APPLYING PRESSURE
ON THE FOOT ON A FLAT
SMOOTH GLASS PLATE

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PROFILE MEASUREMENT, DIAL
MICROMETER AND SURFACE REPLICA TAPE

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PROFILE MEASUREMENT, DIAL MICROMETER
AND SURFACE REPLICA TAPE

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PROFILE ASSESSMENT
SURFACE COMPARATOR TO BS 7079 Pt C, ISO 8503
SHOT BLAST
COMPARATOR. NOT TO
BE USED FOR SURFACE
CLEANLINESS. ONLY
FOR ASSESSMENT OF
SHOT BLASTED
SUBSTRATES. GRIT
BLAST COMPARATOR
CAN ALSO BE USED ON
SUBSTRATES BLASTED
WITH GRIT/SHOT MIX
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RUST GRADES

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RUST GRADES

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BLASTING GRADES A Sa 2.5 and Sa 3

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BLASTING GRADES B Sa 1 and Sa 2

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BLASTING GRADES B Sa 2.5 and Sa 3

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
BLASTING GRADES, COMPARISONS

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BLASTING GRADES C Sa 1 and Sa 2

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
BLASTING GRADES C Sa 2.5 and Sa 3

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BLASTING GRADES D Sa 1 and Sa 2

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
BLASTING GRADES D Sa 2.5 and Sa 3

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
DRY ABRASIVE BLASTING
MEASURING PRESSURE AT THE NOZZLE
HYPODERMIC NEEDLE
GAUGE

INSERT THE NEEDLE


THROUGH THE HOSE
WITH THE NEEDLE
TOWARDS THE NOZZLE,
AT AN ANGLE OF APP.
45 DEGREES

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PREPARATION
HAND AND POWER TOOL CLEANING B St 2 and St 3

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PREPARATION
HAND AND POWER TOOL CLEANING C St 2 and St 3

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PREPARATION
HAND AND POWER TOOL CLEANING D St 2 and St 3

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PREPARATION FLAME CLEANING

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SURFACE PREPARATION, CHEMICAL CLEANING
pH INDICATOR
PAPERS, USED TO
MEASURE ACIDITY
OR ALKALINITY OF
THE SUBSTRATE
AFTER FINAL WASH.
FOR B Gas THE
FIGURE SHOULD BE
BETWEEN 4.5 and 7

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
TESTS FOR SURFACE CONTAMINANTS
HYGROSCOPIC SALTS :- POTASSIUM FERRICYANIDE,
NOW CALLED POTASSIUM HEXACYANOFERRATE

SOLUBLE CHLORIDES :- SILVER NITRATE TEST

MILLSCALE :- COPPER SULPHATE

OIL OR GREASE :- SOLVENT OTHER THAN ALIPHATIC

MOISTURE :- TALCUM OR CHALK

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QUANTITITIVE TESTS FOR HYGROSCOPIC SALTS

MERKOQUANT TEST BRESLE SAMPLE PATCH

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BGAS PAINTING INSPECTION
SALTS DETECTION, BRESLE SAMPLE PATCH KIT

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SOLUTIONS AND DISPERSIONS
SOLVENT:- Will dissolve another material.

SOLUTE:- Is dissolved in the solvent

SOLUTION:- The end product from dissolving a


solute in a solvent

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SOLUTIONS AND DISPERSIONS
DISPERSION:- A SOLID OR A LIQUID DISPERSED
WITHIN ANOTHER LIQUID, WHERE
THERE IS NO SOLUBILITY

A SUSPENSION:- FINE PARTICULATE SOLIDS


DISPERSED WITHIN A LIQUID, NO
SOLUBILITY

AN EMULSION:- A LIQUID DISPERSED WITHIN


ANOTHER LIQUID WHERE THERE IS
NO SOLUBILITY

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
PAINT TECHNOLOGY
3 MAIN GROUPS OF PAINT.
1. PAINTS CONTAINING SOLVENTS
2. SOLVENT FREE MULTI-PACK, MCL’s
3. POWDER PAINTS
ALL HAVE THE SAME BASIC INGREDIENTS
BINDER
SOLVENT
PIGMENTS AND OTHER ADDITIVES

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
BINDERS
PROPERTIES REQUIRED
EASE OF APPLICATION
TO GIVE ADHESION TO THE SUBSTRATE
TO PROVIDE RESISTANCE TO ABRASION
TO PROVIDE CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
TO PROVIDE COHESIVE STRENGTH
TO PROVIDE DIALECTRIC STRENGTH
TO RESIST THE PASSAGE OF WATER
TO CHANGE FROM A LIQUID INTO A SOLID
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SOLVENTS

COMPATIBILITY

CORRECT SOLVENT GROUP FOR BINDER

COMPATABILITY FOR OVERCOATING

FLASHPOINT AND TOXICITY CONSIDERATIONS

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
POLYMERS
A STRING OR STRUCTURE OF REPEATED UNITS
LINEAR POLYMER. PRE FORMED, REVERSIBLE, VERY
SENSITIVE TO SOME HC SOLVENTS

BRANCHED POLYMER. OXIDATION DRYING,


NATURAL OILS AND RESINS , BECOME VERY BRITTLE.

CROSSLINKED POLYMER. CHEMICALLY CURING, VERY


STRONG, EPOXIES, URETHANES AND POLYURETHANES

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
PIGMENTS
ANTI-CORROSIVE :- RUST INHIBITIVE PROPERTIES
METALLIC :- WORK SACRIFICIALLY
OPAQUE :- INERT, PROVIDE OPACITY AND COLOUR
EXTENDERS :- ADD BULK, REDUCE COST
LAMINAR :- PROVIDE IMPERMEABILITY

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
DRYING AND CURING OF PAINT FILMS
SOLVENT EVAPORATION

NO CHEMICAL REACTION
POLYMERS ARE PREFORMED AND SATURATED
LINEAR POLYMERS CLOSED AT THE ENDS BY
HYDROGEN AND HAVE NO DOUBLE BONDS
ALSO CALLED REVERSIBLE OR NON-
CONVERTIBLE

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
DRYING AND CURING OF PAINT FILMS
OXIDATION
USES ATMOSPHERIC OXYGEN
OXYGEN CHEMICALLY COMBINES WITH
UNSATURATED DOUBLE BONDS
PROCESS CAN BE ACCELERATED BY ADDITION OF
DRIERS
ALSO CALLED CONVERTIBLE OR NON-REVERSIBLE

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
DRYING AND CURING OF PAINT FILMS
CHEMICAL CURING

MUST BE MIXED IN THE CORRECT RATIO


POT LIFE AND INDUCTION PERIOD MUST BE
OBSERVED
CONVERTIBLE OR NON-REVERSIBLE
CHEMICALLY CROSS LINK

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PIPE BENDING, GEOGRAPHICAL NECESSITY

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TYPICAL SITUATION FOR PIPE BENDING

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PIPE BENDING

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PIPE LINE DITCHING

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BITUMEN AND COAL TAR ENAMELS
FACTORY APPLICATION

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
BITUMEN AND COAL TAR ENAMELS
FACTORY APPLICATION

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BITUMEN AND COAL TAR ENAMEL RE-INFORCEMENTS
FIBRE GLASS BANDAGES WITH LONGTITUDINAL
MONOFILAMENT RE-INFORCEMENT

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ENAMEL SAMPLES

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
HOT APPLIED TAPES

HEAT THE TAPE BY


HOT AIR OR BLOW
TORCH. APPLY IN A
SPIRAL FASHION.
START AND FINISH
IN A DOWNWARDS
FACING DIRECTION.
DANGER AREAS FOR
FAULTS, 6-O-CLOCK
AND 12-O-CLOCK.

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SOIL STRESSING
CAUSED BY
TEMPERATURE AND
PRESSURE DIFFERENCES

TYPICAL AREA WOULD BE


OUTLET SIDE OF A
COMPRESSOR STATION

REPAIR PROCEDURES TO BE
EXPLAINED LATER

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
COLD APPLIED LAMINATE TAPE

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GREASE BASED TAPES

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
COLD APPLIED SELF ADHESIVE OVERWRAP TAPES
ANY WIDTH , ANY
COLOUR , STICKS
BETTER TO SMOOTH
SURFACES. IDEAL
FOR PLASTICS AND
FBE’S.
NOT A SYSTEM IN
IT’S OWN RIGHT

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
POLYETHYLENE CLADDING

APPLIED BY CROSSHEAD EXTRUSION DIE


MEDIUM TO HIGH DENSITY ( POLYMER LENGTH)
MASTIC THICKNESS 0.15MM
CLADDING THICKNESS 1.3MM
BOTH DIMENSIONS HAVE - 12.5 % TOLERANCE
‘PUCKERS’ WHEN HEAT IS APPLIED
DAMAGES TEND TO SPLIT LONGTITUDINALLY

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HEAT SHRINKABLE PLASTICS

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
POLYETHYLENE CLADDING, PREMOULDED SHAPES

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
HEAT SHRINKABLE PLASTICS
ONLY APPLIED TO POLYETHYLENE CLADDING

SUPPLIED IN WRAPAROUNDS, SLEEVES ,TAPES AND


PREFORMED MOULDS

USE A YELLOW FLAME, APPLY HEAT FROM CENTRE


AND WORK UNIFORMLY CIRCUMFERENTIALY

DIRECTION OF SHRINK WILL BE SHOWN BY ARROWS


OR BY LOGO LINE

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTOR
FUSION BONDED EPOXY, FBE OR RPC

APPLICATION SEQUENCE

BLAST CLEAN TO SA 2.5 EXPENDIBLE ABRASIVES

HEAT BY INDUCTION COIL TO SPECIFIED TEMP.

APPLY POWDER BY AUTOMATIC OR SEMI


AUTO MATIC SPRAY

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
PAINT APPLICATION ELECTROSTATIC SPRAYING
NEGATIVELY CHARGED

POSITIVELY
CHARGED
PARTICLES

IONISED AIR VOLUME


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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS, FBE APPLICATION
PIPELINE INDUCTION
HEAT

WELDING SET,
GENERATOR, BLAST POT
AND COMPRESSOR, ALL
ON ONE FLATBACK,
WITH LIFTING GEAR

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
INDUCTION COIL
SITE VOLTAGE 110V AC

COIL DOES NOT HEAT THE


PIPE BY RADIATION.

THE AC CURRENT SETS UP


A FIELD CAUSING THE
STEEL ATOMS TO EXCITE,
THE RESULTING FRICTION
HEATS THE BUTT.

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
POWDER APPLICATION

MANUAL SYSTEM.
AS FEW PASSES AS
POSSIBLE. TYPICALLY
6, TO REDUCE THE
OCCURRENCE OF
DIFFERENTIAL
CURING

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
POWDER APPLICATION

MANUAL SYSTEM

HEATING COIL
ADJASCENT

MAIN CONTROL PANEL


VISIBLE IN TOP R/H
CORNER

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTOR
Base resin. Activator resin
Own Tg. own Tg

Uncured powder
different Tg.
As determined at the factory

Uncured powder Cured powder


Tg (90) Tg app. 105.

As the powder progressively cures, forming different


compounds, the Tg will progressively increase
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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
D.S.C. GRAPHS

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
D.S.C. GRAPHS

RUN 1 OF CURED
MICRONISED
POWDER SHOWING
RESIDUAL
EXOTHERM.
WOULD BE REJECTED
BECAUSE THE CURE
IS INCOMPLETE.

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
D.S.C. GRAPHS
PERFECT TRACES.
NO RESIDUAL
EXOTHERM.
ACCEPTABLE.

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
REPAIRS TO FBE COATINGS
INTERPON QUICKSET INTERPON REPAIR
REPAIR COMPOUND COMPOUND.

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
REPAIRS TO FBE COATINGS

BLISTER PACKS MELT STICK

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HOLIDAY/PINHOLE DETECTION

TYPICAL H/V SET


FOR PINHOLE
DETECTION.
OPERATES UP TO
5 Kv. TOO HIGH
FOR NORMAL
PAINT SYSTEMS

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HANDLING AND STORAGE OF COATED PIPE

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CONCRETE COATINGS

RE-INFORCING HELD
IN POSITION BY
NON- METALLIC
SPACERS.

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
CONCRETE COATINGS

NON CONDUCTIVE
PLASTIC SPACERS
CLIPPED ONTO RE-
BARS. MUST BE
NON-CONDUCTIVE
BECAUSE OF CP.

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CRACK TOLERANCES

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BACKFILLING
ROCK GUARD, PLASTIC MESH TO PROTECT
AGAINST IMPACT DAMAGE DURING BACKFILL

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BACKFILLING

ROCKGUARD
TYPICAL USE,
PLASTIC MESH
STRAPPED INTO
POSITION

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PAINT TESTING, VISCOSITY

ROTATIONAL VISCOMETER
WITH ROTOTHINNER
MEASURES DYNAMIC
VISCOSITY. UNITS, POISES

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PAINT TESTING. VISCOSITY
KREBS STORMER VISCOMETER
KINEMATIC VISCOSITY
DRIVEN BY A FALLING
WEIGHT, THE HEAVIER
THE WEIGHT THE
FASTER IT ROTATES.
CRITERIA 200 RPM
UNITS STOKE OR POISE

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PAINT TESTING FORD FLOW CUP IN ITS
RETORT AND SHOWING
FLOW VISCOSITY THE 4mm DIA HOLE
A FORD FLOW CUP

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PAINT TESTING VISCOSITY. FORD FLOW CUP

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PAINT FILM MEASUREMENT, WET FILM
ECCENTRIC WHEEL

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
WET FILM THICKNESS MEASUREMENT
COMB GAUGES

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
FORMULAE

V.S% ( DFT) WFT


% OF WFT

SOLVENT PIGMENT
BINDER AND
EXTENDERS
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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
DFT MEASUREMENTS ELECTRONIC GAUGES
ELECTROPHYSIC ELCOMETER
MINI TEST THE EXACTO 456

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
DRY FILM THICKNESS MEASUREMENT, MAGNETIC.
THE TINSLEY PENCIL

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DRY FILM THICKNESS MEASUREMENT, MAGNETIC,
HORSESHOE GAUGE

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DRY FILM THICKNESS MEASUREMENT, MAGNETIC,
THE BANANA GAUGE MODEL 111

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
DRY FILM THICKNESS MEASUREMENTS, MAGNETIC
THE BANANA GAUGE MODEL 211

SCALE MOVES
TO THE
CURSER

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DRY FILM THICKNESS MEASUREMENT
COLOUR CODED CALIBRATION SHIMS

PURPLE 25um
BLUE 50um
BROWN 125um
WHITE 250um
YELLOW 500um
nominal values

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
PAINT TESTING . ADHESION
PRIMER TO SUBSTRATE FAILURE

INTERCOAT ADHESION FAILURE

COHESIVE FAILURE

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ADHESION ‘V’ CUT TEST
CUT ‘V’ 30 INC INSERT BLADE TIP
15mm~ LEG APPLY LEVERAGE

A A A

CROSS SECTION ON A A

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ADHESION TESTS, CROSS CUT ( CROSS HATCH) TEST

Cut 6 lines vertical and


6 horizontal, 25 x 2mm
squares. Apply tape,
pull off and compare for
% area of detachment .
BS 3900 Pt E6

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ADHESION TESTS CROSS CUT ( CROSS HATCH ) TEST
SPECIAL CUTTER TOOL

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ADHESION TESTS THE DOLLY TEST

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ADHESION TESTS THE HYDRAULIC ADHESION TESTER

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WEATHER CONDITIONS

CONSIDERATIONS

1. RELATIVE HUMIDITY EXPRESSED AS %

2. AIR TEMPERATURE
3. STEEL TEMPERATURE
4. CALCULATED DEW POINT TEMPERATURE

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WEATHER CONDITIONS WHIRLING HYGROMETER

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WEATHER CONDITIONS DEW POINT CALCULATOR

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WEATHER CONDITIONS . DEW POINT CALCULATIONS

DRY BULB = 15
WET BULB = 10
ALIGN 10 WET (RED)
WITH 15 DRY (BLACK)
READ OFF DP TEMP
INSIDE THE ELIPTICAL
WINDOW OPPOSITE
THE WET BULB
TEMPERATURE OF 10

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
WEATHER CONDITIONS DEW POINT CALCULATOR

DRY BULB TEMP


15, OPPOSITE
DEW POINT TEMP
5.5, READ OFF RH
FROM TIP OF
BLACK ARROW, IN
THE SMALL
ELIPTICAL
WINDOW

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WEATHER CONDITIONS STEEL TEMPERATURES
MAGNETIC, CONTACT THERMOCOUPLE

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CATHODIC PROTECTION SACRIFICIAL SYSTEM

ENVIRONMENT WITH ELECTROLYTE

CONNECTING
CABLE

STEEL PIPE ZINC ANODE

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CATHODIC PROTECTION IMPRESSED CURRENT

TR POSITIVE
TO
NEGATIVE GROUND
TO PIPE BED

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CATHODIC PROTECTION MONITORING POTENTIALS

COPPER /COPPER
SULPHATE HALF CELL
REFERENCE ELECTRODE

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
CATHODIC DISBONDMENT TEST

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HEALTH AND SAFETY, COSHH REGULATIONS
ABBREVIATIONS
EH 40, GUIDANCE NOTES, HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE
MEL , MAXIMUM EXPOSURE LIMIT
OEL, OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMIT
OES, OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE STANDARD
LEL, LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT
UEL, UPPER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT
RAQ, REQUIRED AIR QUANTITY

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BGAS SITE COATING INSPECTION
HEALTH AND SAFETY DRAGER TUBE AND BELLOWS

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