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Chords,Arcs,and

Central Angles
Central Angle and Arcs

A central angle of a circle is an angle formed by two rays


whose vertex is the center of the circle. Each ray intersects
the circle at a point, dividing it into arcs.
Sum of Central Angles

The sum of the measures of the central angles of a circle with no


common interior points is 360 degrees.
Arcs of a Circle

An arc is a part of a circle. A semicircle is an arc with a measure equal to


one-half the circumference of a circle. It is named by using the two
endpoints and another point on the arc.

A minor arc is an arc of the circle that measures less than a semicircle.
It is named usually by using the two endpoints of the arc.

A major arc is an arc of a circle that measures greater than a semicircle.


It is named by using the two endpoints and another point on the arc.
Degree Measure of an Arc

The degree measure of a minor arc is the measure of the


central angle which intercepts the arc.

The degree measure of a major arc is equal to 360 minus the


measure of the minor arc with the same endpoints.

The degree measure of a semicircle is 180°.


Arc Addition Postulate

The measure of an arc formed by two adjacent arcs is the sum of the
measures of the two arcs.
Sector and Segment of a Circle

A sector of a circle is the region bounded by an arc of the circle and two
radii to the endpoints of the arc.
To find the the area of a sector of a circle, get the product of the ratio
𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑐
and the area of the circle (A=𝜋𝑟 2 ).
360
Sector and Segment of a Circle

The radius of Circle O is 10 cm. If the measure of ArcAB=60, what is the


area of sector AOB? (To be answered by G1)

The diameter of Circle F is 18 cm. If the measure of ArcUN=45, what is


the area sector UFN? (To be answered by B3)
Sector and Segment of a Circle

A segment of a circle is the region bounded by an arc and the segment


joining its endpoints.

To find the area of a segment of a circle, subtract the area of the


triangle from the area of the sector.
𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑐 𝑏ℎ
𝐴𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 -𝐴∆ = 𝐴𝑠𝑒𝑔𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 ⟶ [( )(𝜋𝑟 2 )] - = 𝐴𝑠𝑒𝑔𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡
360 2
Sector and Segment of a Circle

If m ArcPQ = 70 in Circle T and the radius of the circle is 5 cm, what is


the area of the segment? (To be answered by B9)
If the diameter of a circle is 14cm and the m ArcBA = 100 in Circle D,
what is the area of the segment? ( To be answered by G7)
Arc Length

The length of an arc can be determined by using the proportion


𝐴 𝑙
= , where A is the degree measure of the arc, r is the radius of the
360 2𝜋𝑟

circle, and I is the arc length.


Arc Length

An arc of a circle measures 90°. If the radius of the circle is 10 cm, what
is the length of the arc? (To be answered by B5)

A radius of the circle is 16 cm. If the arc of the circle measure 35°, what
is the length of the arc? (To be answered by G10)
Answer p155-p156
Activity 11: Find This Part
5 points – Solution with correct answer
2 points – Solution with wrong answer
1 point – Final answer only
0 – No answer
Inscribed Angles and Intercepted Arcs

An inscribed angle is an angle whose vertex is on a circle and whose


sides contain chords of the circle. The arc that lies in the interior of an
inscribed angle and has endpoints on the angle is called the intercepted
arc of the angle.
Inscribed Angles and Intercepted Arcs

Theorems on Inscribed Angles:


1. If an angle is inscribed in a circle, then the measure of the angle
equals one-half the measure of its intercepted arc.

A
2.)If two inscribed angles of a congruent circles intercept congruent
arcs or the same arc, then the angles are congruent.
O
I L P

T
S
E

M I L
P
3.)If an inscribed angle of a circle intercepts a semicircle, then the angle
is a right angle.

N
S

O
T

E
4.)If a quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle, then its opposite angles are
supplementary.
𝑚∠𝑅𝐷𝐴 + 𝑚∠𝑅𝐸𝐴 = 180
𝑚∠𝐷𝑅𝐸 + 𝑚∠𝐷𝐴𝐸 = 180
D

M R

A
E
Tangents and Secants of a Circle

Tangent Line
A tangent to a circle is a line coplanar with the circle and intersects it in
one and only one point. The point of instersection of the line and the
circle is called the point of tangency.
Tangents and Secants of a Circle

Theorems on Tangent Line


1. If a line is tangent to a circle, then it is perpendicular to the radius
drawn to the point of tangency.
2. If a line is perpendicular to a radius of a cirlce at its endpoint that is
on the circle, then the line is tangent to the circle.
3. If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a
circle, then the two segments are congruent.
Tangents and Secants of a Circle

Common Tangent
- A common tangent is a line that is tangent to two circles in the same
plane.
1. Common Internal Tangents – intersect the segment joining the
centers of two circles.
2. Common External Tangents – do not intersect the segment joining
the centers of the two circles.
Tangents and Secants of a Circle

Secant Line
A secant is a line that intersects a circle at exactly two points. A secant
contains a chord of a circle.
Tangents and Secants of a Circle

Theorems on Angles Formed by Tangents and Secants


1.)If two secants intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of the angle formed
is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the intercepted arcs.

N P
1
𝑚∠𝑋𝑃𝑌 = 𝑚𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑋𝑌 − 𝑚𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑀𝑁
2
X M If mArcXY=140 and mArcMN=30, then
1
𝑚∠𝑋𝑃𝑌 = 140 − 30
2
1
= 110
2
Y 𝑚∠𝑋𝑃𝑌 = 55
Tangents and Secants of a Circle

2.)If a secant and a tangent intersect in the extetior of a circle, then the measure of the angle
formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the intercepted arcs.

L M 1
𝑚∠𝐿𝑀𝐶 = 𝑚𝐴𝑟𝑐𝐿𝐸𝐶 − 𝑚𝐴𝑟𝑐𝐿𝐺
2
G
For example, if mArcLEC=186 and
mArcLG=70, then
1
𝑚∠𝐿𝑀𝐶 = 186 − 70
2
1
E = 116
2
𝑚∠𝐿𝑀𝐶 = 58

C
Tangents and Secants of a Circle

3.)If two tangents intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of the angle formed is
one-half the positive difference of the measures of the intercepted arcs.

H Q
1
𝑚∠𝐾𝑄𝐻 = 𝑚𝐴𝑟𝑐𝐻𝐽𝐾 − 𝑚𝐴𝑟𝑐𝐻𝐾
2
For example, mArcHJK=250
and mArcHK=110,then
K 1
𝑚∠𝐾𝑄𝐻 = 250 − 110
2
1
= 140
J 2
𝑚∠𝐾𝑄𝐻 = 70
Tangents and Secants of a Circle

4.)If two secants intersect in the interior of a circle, then the measure of an angle formed is
one-half the sum of the measure of the arcs intercepted by the angle and its vertical angle.
1 1
𝑚∠2 = 𝑚𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑊𝑋 + 𝑚𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑅𝑆 𝑚∠1 = 𝑚𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑊𝑅 + 𝑚𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑋𝑆
2
For example, if mArcWX=80 W 2
For example, if mArcWR=100 and
And mArcRS=60, then R mARcXS=120, then
1 1 1
𝑚∠2 = 80 + 160 2 𝑚∠1 = 100 + 120
2 2
1 1
= 140 S = 220
2 2
X 𝑚∠1 = 110
𝑚∠2 = 70
Tangents and Secants of a Circle

5.)If a secant and a tangent intersect at the point of tangency, then the measure of each
angle formed is one-half the measure of its intercepted arc.

1 1
𝑚∠𝑄𝑆𝑊 = 𝑚𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑄𝑇𝑆
𝑚∠𝑄𝑆𝑅 = 𝑚𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑄𝑆
2 Q 2

For example, if For example, if


mArcQS=170, then R mArcQTS=190, then
1 1
𝑚∠𝑄𝑆𝑅 = 170 𝑚∠𝑄𝑆𝑄 = 190
2 2
𝑚∠𝑄𝑆𝑅 = 85 T S
𝑚∠𝑄𝑆𝑊 = 95

W
Probability

Probability is a field of mathematics that deals with chance.


An experiment is an activity in which the results cannot be predicted
with certainty. Each repetition of an experiment is called a trial.
An outcome is a result of an experiment. An event is any collection of
outcomes, and a simple event is an event with only one possible
outcome. The sample space for a given experiment is a set S that
contains all possible outcomes of the experiment.
Probability

In any experiment for which the sample space is S, the probability of an


event occuring is given by thr formula:

𝑛(𝐸𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡)
𝑃 𝐸𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 =
𝑛(𝑆𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑆𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒)

Event Sample space


Probability

Example: A coin is tossed.


Find:
a) The sample space
b) The probability of getting a head
Sol’n:
a) There are two outcomes in this experiment, {head,tail} and n(sample
space)=2
𝑛(ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑) 1
b) 𝑃 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 = 𝑛(𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒)
=
2
Probability

Example 2: If a card is drawn from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards,


what is the probability that it is a king of diamonds?
Sol’n:
An experiment of dealing 1 card from the 52-card deck has 52
different outcomes. Out of these, there is only one
way of getting a king of diamonds.

𝑛(𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠) 1
𝑃 𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠 = =
𝑛(𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒) 52
Probability

Postulates of Probability
The following are the basic postulates of probability.
i. For every event A of a sample space S , 0 ≤ 𝑃(𝐴) ≤ 1
ii. If event A equals the sample space S, then 𝑃 𝐴 =𝑃 𝑆 =1
iii. If events A and B are subsets of S and have no elements in
common, then 𝑃 𝐴∪𝐵 =𝑃 𝐴 +𝑃 𝐵
Probability

Rolling a die will have 6 possible outcomes, which are {1,2,3,4,5,6}


The number of elements in the sample space in rolling three dice is = 216
The probability of getting at least two 4’s plus the probability of getting three 4’s. These two events have no
elements in common.
Let A be the event of rolling two 4’s
Let B be the event of rolling three 4’s

Event A: The list of outcomes of getting two 4’s in rolling three dice:
{(144),(244),(344),(544),(644),(441),(442),(443),(445),(446),(414),(424),(434),(454),(464)}
𝑛(𝐴) 15
n(A)=15 𝑃 𝐴 = =
𝑛(𝑆) 216
Probability

Event B: There is only one way of getting three 4’s in rolling a three
dice, that is {(444)}.
𝑛(𝐵) 1
𝑃 𝐵 = =
𝑛(𝑆) 216
Therefore, the probability of getting at least two 4’s is
𝑃 𝐴∪𝐵 =𝑃 𝐴 +𝑃 𝐵
15 1
= +
216 216
16 2
= =
216 27
Probability

Complement of a Set
A’ is called the complement of A with respect to a set S if
i. 𝐴 ∪ 𝐴′ = 𝑆
ii. 𝐴 ∩ 𝐴′ = ∅
If A’ is the complement of an event A with respect to sample space S
then, 𝑃 𝐴′ = 1 − 𝑃 𝐴
Probability

An electronic chip factory can have 5 defective chips for every 100 it
produces. If five chips are selected at random, what is the probability of
getting at least one defective?