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Muhammad Nauman Abbas

2015-CH-712
Equipment:
Heat Exchanger
Heat Exchanger 2
Shell & tube heat exchangers:
Advantages
 Widely known and understood since it is the most common type less thermally
efficient than other types of heat transfer equipment.
 Most versatile in terms of types of service.
 Widest range of allowable design pressures and temperatures.
 Subject to flow induced vibration which can lead to equipment failure.

Disadvantages
 Not well suited for temperature cross conditions (multiple units in series must be
used)
 Contains stagnant zones (dead zones) on the shell side which can lead to
corrosion problems.
Design Procedure of Heat Exchanger 3
(shell and tube)

The main steps of design the heat exchanger are summarized as follows:
i. Obtain the required thermo physical properties of hot and cold fluids at
average temperature of streams.
ii. Perform energy balance and find out the heat duty (Q) of the exchanger.
iii. Calculate the LMTD.
iv. Assume overall heat transfer coefficient (Uo).
v. Calculate Provisional area and number of tubes.
vi. Specify the shell and tube configuration.
vii. Calculate hi and ho.
viii. Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient (U). If it is not equal to
assumed value, then again assume Uo until it becomes equal to assumed
value.
ix. Calculate the pressure drop.
Design Calculations
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LMTD

(ΔT1 − ΔT2)
LMTD =
ln (ΔT1/ΔT2)
 (ΔT) 1= 238 ºC
 (ΔT)2= 145ºC
 LMTD= 187ºC
 S=0.2347 R=2.2739 Ft=0.95
 Corrected LMTD= 163ºC

Overall heat transfer coefficient


 Assume value of overall heat transfer coefficient Uo =45 W/m2 .K
Provisional Area
(Q)
A=
(Uo∗ΔTlm)
 Q= 256,000W
 Uo= 45 W/m2 .K
 LMTD= 187ºC
 A=34 m2
Design Calculations 5
From Table 10 Heat Exchanger tube data Tube sheet layout

BWG= 20 Bundle Diameter = Db= O.D (Nt/K) 1/n


Inner Diameter of tube=I.D= 0.01274m For Triangular pitch and two passes = K=0.249
Outer diameter of tube= O.D=0.01093m n = 2.27
Length of tube= 2.44m Bundle Diameter = Db = 0.3218m
Surface area of one tube= pi * O.D * L Use Split ring Floating Head type
Surface Area of one tube= 3.14*0.0195*4.88 Clearance= 0.056m
Surface area of one tube=0.09732m2 Shell Diameter = 0.3218 + 0.056= 0.3788m
No of tubes= Nt = Provisional Area / Area of one tube
No of tubes = 30m2 / 0.09732m2 = 358
Tube passes = 2
Tube Per pass= 179
Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (ho) Tube Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (hi)

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Choose baffle Spacing Lb = (OD)/5 = 0.079984m Tube Area At = Nt*at/n=0.01462m2

Triangular Pitch = Pt = 1.25 * outside diameter of Nt=132 at= 0.0000936m2 n =2


tube=0.01588m
Tube flow Area At =Nt*at/n=0.147m2
Area of shell = As= ID*C*B/Pt =.006390m2
Gs = m/As = 0.13308 kg / sec.m2 Mass velocity =Gt=W/At

Equivalent diameter = De = 0.00901m Gt =0.07402 Kg/sec.m2


µ = 0.0005514 kg/m.sec
µ = 0.002694 Kg/sec.m
Re = De*Gs/µ =2152.50 Re = Di * Gs / µ = 156.35
Pr = (µ*Cp/k) 0.333 = 3.5683
Pr = (µCp/k) 0.333 = 54.02
Jh=0.012 K=0.64559 W/m2.◦C Jh=0.008 K=0.1184 Kj/Kg.K
ho = Jh*K/De(µ*Cp/k)1/3
hi = Jh*K/Di(µ*cp/k)1/3
ho=516.50 W/m2 ºC hi= 50.73 W/m2 ◦C
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
1/ Uo= 1/ho+1/hi
1/ Uo =0.02164
Uo=1/0.02164
Uo=46.19 W/m2.◦C
We assumed the value Uo= 45 W/m2 ºC which is near to our
calculated value.
Pressure Drop Calculations
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Shell side pressure drop Tube side pressure drop

ΔPs=[8*jf*(Ds/De)*(N+1)*(ρus2/2)] ΔPt=Np[8*jf*(L/Di)+2.5]*(ρ*μt2/2)
At Re = 2152.50 At Re = 156
jf = 0.075 jf = 0.38
L = 2.44m L = 2.44m
Do = 0.0109m Di=0.0127m
ΔPs = 1.02psi ΔPt = 0.17psi
Specification Sheet 8

Diameter of Shell (Ds) 0.3788 m

Total no. of Tubes (Nt) 358

Bundle Diameter 0.238 m

Shell Diameter 0.295 m

Total Pressure Drop (shell side) 1.027 psi

Total Pressure Drop (tube side) 0.17 psi

Number of Baffles 29

Heat Transfer Area of Heat Exchanger 34 m2


(A)

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient( Uo) 45 W/m2.◦C