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Heat treatment

Fig.4: Time temperature transformation (schematic) diagram for plain carbon


eutectoid steel
% of Phase
100
T1 T2 At T1, incubation
50%
period for pearlite=t2,
0 Pearlite finish time
=t4
Ae1
T2 Minimum incubation
period t0 at the nose
Pearlite
T1
of the TTT diagram,
t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 Fine pearlite
t0

Hardness
50% very fine pearlite + 50% upper bainite MS=Martensite
start temperature
M50=temperature
Temperature

Upper bainite
for 50%
martensite
formation
MF= martensite
Lower bainite
finish temperature
MS, Martensite start temperature
M50,50% Martensite
Metastable austenite +martensite
MF, Martensite finish temperature

Martensite
3
Log time
SUMMARY: PROCESSING OPTIONS
Adapted from
Fig. 10.27,
Callister 6e.

19
Temperature controls the kinetics of the transformations. For the recrystallization of
Cu:

For a specific temperature range, rate increases according to :

IE 114-Material Science and General


5
Chemistry
The dependance of transformation to temperature and time can be analyzed best
using the diagram below:

Data for the construction of isothermal


transformation diagram is obtained from
a series of plots of the percentage
transformation versus logarithm of time
investigated over a range of temperatures.

727°C
At T just below 727°C, very long times
(on the order of 105 s) are required for 50%
transformation and therefore transformation
rate is slow. The transformation rate
increases as T decreases, for example,
at 540°C 3 s is required for 50% completion.
isothermal transformation diagram
This type of diagram is valid for constant T.
for Fe-C alloy of eutectoid composition
IE 114-Material Science and General
6
Chemistry
HEAT TREATMENT
HEAT TREATMENT PROCESS

Temp x Time

) Atmosphere Cooling
Temperature C


Wat
・Carburizing, Decarburizing er
In
・Deoxidation, oxidation Oil Air Furna
ce

Quenching Normalizing Annealing

Time
PROCESS OF HEAT TREATMENT
Heat treatment process

Total Hardening Quenching Tempering


Precipitation Hardening
Improving Mechanical Carburizing (Carbonitriding)Quenching
property Soft Nitriding
Nitriding
Wear Resistance
Fatigue Resistance Surface Hardening Sulfurizing (Nitriding)
Strength
Local hardening
[Induction・Laser・Electron beam]
Carbide Film coating,diffusion treatment
Surface Reforming Treatment Deposition (PVD,CVD)
ion implantation etc
Improving workability
and other property
Full anneal
Machinability
Spheroidizing annealing
Forgeability
Stress relief annealing
Stress relief
Grain refinement annealing
Magnetic properties
Magnetic annealing
Microstructure realignment
Normalizing
Homework Answers
• Why are alloys so popular?

• Because the addition of alloy provides the


mechanical properties needed for strength,
corrosion resistance and ductility.
Homework Answers
• Discuss the concept of plasticity in terms of a
material’s ability to withstand changes in its
shape when being formed under pressure.

• A material that can be formed under


pressure (forged) must have Plasticity. For
example Aluminum can be formed under
pressure but cast iron can’t.
Homework Answers
• How do Plasticity and Ductility differ?
• Plasticity is the ability to be formed by force,
ductility is a measure of how much the shape
can change.
• 5% or less elongation is considered brittle,
greater than 5% is considered ductile.
Homework Answers
• List some products made with Refractory
metals. How are the metals made?
• Light bulb filaments, electrodes, gas turbines,
crucibles. These metals are pure elements.
HEAT TREATMENT
• The controlled heating and cooling of metals
to alter their physical and mechanical
properties without changing the product
shape.
• Three stages
– Controlled heating
– Hold it for specific time
– Cooling at predetermined rate
Purpose of Heat Treatment
• Internal stresses
• Machinability
• Grain size
• Electrical & magnetic property
• Homogenous
• Mechanical property
• softening
CLASSIFICATION
• Annealing
• Normalizing
• Hardening
• Tempering
• Case hardening
– Carburizing , Cyaniding, Nitriding
• Surface hardening
– Induction hardening
– Flame hardening
ANNEALING
• Mostly used operation
• Objective-soften the steel
• Heat the steel 30-50⁰C above the upper Tc
– For hypo-eutectoid & above the lower Tc for hyper
eutectoid steel
– Hold it for sufficient time
– It is then slowly cooled at the rate of about 20
ºC/hr in a furnace . At this point, it can be cooled
in room temperature air with natural convection.
Temp ranges for heat treatment
910

723

Hyper-eutectoid
NORMALIZING
• It is similar to annealing the only difference is
temp range, holding time & rate of cooling.
– 40-50⁰C above critical temp.
– 15 minutes
– Room temperature cooling in still air
• Use to remove the dislocation
• To refine the grain structure
• To improve machinability, tensile strength.
COMPARISON
ANNEALING NORMALISING
• Less ductile • More ductile
• More strong & • Soft
Harder • Machinability
• More impact • Greater removal of
strength, yield point internal stresses.
& ultimate tensile
strength
HARDENING
• To increase the hardness
• Enable to cut other metals
• Temp range 30-50⁰C above upper Tc for hypo
& lower Tc for hyper eutectoid steels.
• Hold it at this temp for sufficient time
• Cooling it rapidly called quenching in a
suitable medium like water, oil or both.
Cont…
• Metal is forced to be transformed from
austenite to martensite by quenching.
• Hardness depends on
– rate of cooling
– % of carbon effects the hardness.
– Quenching medium
– Surface condition
– Proportion of alloying elements.
TEMPERING
• After hardening steel become very hard &
brittle .
• Reheat harden steel to some temp below
lower Tc followed by desired rate of cooling.
• So tempering is for
– Reduce brittleness
– Internal stresses
– Increase toughness to resist shock & fatigue.
Examples

Type of work Tempering Tempering Colour


temperature ⁰C
Screw Drivers 295 Blue
Springs 300 Dark Blue
Cold Chisels 290 violet
Scrapers & Lathe 220 Pale yellow
Tools for Brass
CASE & SURFACE HARDENING
• Hardened from surface & soft interior or core
so that absorbs shock.
• Gears, ball bearings, railway wheels etc.
• 1) carburizing-low carbon steel(0.25%) can not
be hardened appreciably by hardening
process.
• Surface is made hard only up to certain depth.
PACK OR SOLID CARBURISING
GAS CARBURIZING
• Very popular
• Mass production
• Light & small particles
• Methane , ethane, propene, butane mixed
with CO & carbon dioxide.
• Temp range 900-950⁰C
• 0.5-0.75 mm depth
• Only requires 4 hours
CYANIDING
• Liquid carburizing.
• Carbon & nitrogen.
• Low carbon steel immersed in bath of cyanide
salt (sodium cyanide, sodium chloride,&
sodium Carbonate) at 850-950C for 15-20
minutes & then quenched.
• Hardness up to 0.8mm
• Automobiles(oil pump gears,brake cam)in
motorcycle gears,shafts,pin.
NITRIDING
• Used for steel alloyed with Cr,Al,Mn etc.
• Electric furnace 450-550
• Ammonia gas which forms nitrides
• Hardness up to 0.8mm
• Used where high wear resistance required at
high temperature e.g. piston pins, cylinder
line, crankshaft, also in ball and roller bearing
parts.
INDUCTION HARDENING
CONTD….
• Inductor block
• High frequency current passed
• Heating effect due to induced eddy currents
• As soon as temp reaches 750 to 760 it is spray
quenched.
• Very fast ,only require few seconds to a depth
of 3mm
• Use for shafts, spindles, camshafts etc.
FLAME HARDENING
• Local hardening
• Flame of oxy-acetylene torch
• Immediately quenched.
• For example gears, wheels
• Time taken is less.