Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 34

EVOLUTION

&
S P E C I AT I O N
BIOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT
(A) CHARLES DARWIN (B) ALFRED WALLACE
OUTLINE FROM SYLLABUS

• 21 Describe how evolution (a change in the allele frequency) can come about through gene
mutation and natural selection

• 22 Explain how reproductive isolation can lead to speciation.

• 23 Describe the role of the scientific community in validating new evidence (including
molecular biology, e.g. DNA, proteomics) supporting the accepted scientific theory of
evolution (scientific journals, the peer review process, scientific conferences).
UNDERSTANDING EVOLUTION

• • Describe how the present-day theory of evolution was developed


• • Define adaptation
• • Explain convergent and divergent evolution
• • Describe homologous and vestigial structures
• • Discuss misconceptions about the theory of evolution
ADAPT OR DIE ???
Evolution:
What is evolution?

It’s the gradual development of life in geological


time.
Evolution is process done by natural selection
describes a mechanism for how species change over
time. It is an ongoing process.
DARWIN’S OBSERVATIONS & EVOLUTION
• Darwin observed species of organisms on different islands that were clearly
similar, yet had distinct differences.
• For example, the ground finches inhabiting the Galápagos Islands comprised
several species with a unique beak shape.
most characteristics of organisms are inherited,
or passed from parent to offspring

more offspring are produced by offspring than so there is a


are able to survive, so resources for survival and
reproduction are limited struggle for
existence
offspring vary among each other in regard to
their characteristics and those variations are
inherited.
there is
competition
between members
Numbers naturally stay pretty much the same of the same species
over time:
SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST

• Natural selection, also known as “survival of the fittest,” is


the more prolific reproduction of individuals with favorable
traits that survive environmental change because of those
traits;
This leads to evolutionary change.
THERE IS A HUGE AMOUNT OF VARIATION
BETWEEN SPECIES:
-The individuals best adapted survive and breed.
-They have a selective advantage.
-Therefore Survival of the fittest
- Individuals with these adaptive features will be more common in the
next generation.
-Those that are not well adapted will die off.
- Over time the individual with the best traits will survive and the
resulting generation will have more of the adapted and desirable
traits.
Process and Patterns
of EVOLUTION
Genetic diversity in a population comes from two main
mechanisms:

MUTATION AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION


SEXUAL REPRODUCTION ALSO LEADS
TO?

GENETIC
DIVERSITY
When two parents reproduce, unique combinations of alleles assemble to produce
the unique genotypes and thus phenotypes in each of the offspring
MUTATION
Or new
is the ultimate
a change genetic
source of new
in DNA variation in
alleles
any population
The genetic changes caused by mutation can have one of three outcomes
on the phenotype:

• A mutation affects the phenotype of the > lower likelihood of


1 organism in a way that gives it reduced survival or fewer offspring
fitness
• A mutation may produce a phenotype with
a beneficial effect on fitness. And, many > these are called neutral
2 mutations
mutations will also have no effect on the
fitness of the phenotype
• Mutations may also have a whole range of
effect sizes on the fitness of the organism
3
that expresses them in their phenotype,
from a small effect to a great effect.
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE PROCESS
OF NATURAL SELECTION

1. Overproduction
2. Competition
3. Variations
ADAPTATION
groups of that increases or
when a change in
organisms maintains the
the range of
becoming “fit” of the
genetic variation
adapted to their population to its
occurs over time
environment environment.

The webbed feet of platypuses are an The snow leopards’ The cheetahs’ fast speed is an
adaptation for swimming. thick fur is an adaptation adaptation for catching prey.
for living in the cold.
NATURAL SELECTION
• The process whereby organisms better adapted to their
environment tend to survive and produce more offspring.
• The theory of its action was first fully expounded by
Charles Darwin.
• It is now regarded as be the main process that brings
about evolution.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATURAL
SELECTION AND ADAPTATION
A mutation is an
alteration of the DNA
sequence. Adaptations are
changes or
processes of
Mutations changes by which
can cause instant an organism or
adaptations
species becomes
natural selection is the better suited for its
process by which environment.
adaptations occurs over
a series of generations
VARIATION

Genetic Can happen


diversity in a due to two
population mechanisms

Mutation &
Sexual
reproduction
MUTATION • change in DNA
• ultimate source of new alleles, or new genetic variation in
any population.
• The genetic changes caused by mutation can have one of
1 three outcomes on the phenotype.
A mutation affects the

2
phenotype of the lower likelihood
organism in a way that of survival or
gives it reduced fitness fewer offspring
A mutation may produce a phenotype with a
beneficial effect on fitness.

3
Mutations may also have a whole
Many mutations will also have no effect on the
fitness of the phenotype; these are called
neutral mutations.
range of effect sizes on the fitness of
the organism that expresses them in
their phenotype, from a small effect to
a great effect.
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
• Sexual reproduction also leads to genetic diversity

when two parents reproduce

unique combinations of
alleles assemble to produce
the unique genotypes

thus phenotypes in each of


the offspring.
PHENOTYPE & ADAPTION
• A heritable trait that helps the survival and reproduction of
an organism in its present environment is called an
adaptation.
that increases or
groups of organisms maintains the “fit”
becoming adapted of the population
to their when a change in to its environment.
environment the range of
genetic variation
occurs over time
Adaptation FLOWCHART OF EVOLUTIONARY REASONING
Some variability is
inherited; adapted
Formation of new Population of a
trait increases in particular species/
genotypes leads to future generation group of organisms
phenotypic
variation
Evolution: the genetic
make up of the Undergo mutation/
population changes sexual reproduction
over time driven by
natural selection
Potential for rapid
Variation in
reproduction
structures a&
behaviour Natural selection: on
average the fittest Relatively limited Leads to
organism produce resources and variation
more offspring constant population
over time
Survival of fittest Unfavorable Favorable
Competition for survival mutation removed mutation
& reproduction > & Favorable more likely to
Struggle for overproduction mutation survive survive and
existence
reproduce
TYPES OF EVOLUTION

divergent convergent
Divergent Convergent evolution occurs
evolution occurs when when species have different
two separate ancestral origins but have
species evolve different developed similar features.
ly from a common A good example of convergent
ancestor. evolution is the
similarities between the
hummingbird and the
hummingbird moth.
EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION

• Fossil
• Anatomy & Embryology
• Biogeography
• Molecular Biology

WATCH THE VIDEO!


MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT EVOLUTION
1. Evolution is a theory about the origin of life.
2. Evolutionary theory implies that life evolved (to evolve) randomly, or by chance.
3. Evolution results in progress; organisms getting better through evolution.
4. Individual organisms can evolve during a single lifespan. and gradually.
5. Because evolution is slow, influence it.
6. Genetic drift only small populations.
7. Humans are not currently evolving. distinct natural entities, clear definition,
recognized by anyone.

• Please watch the video.


• Please read the given worksheet thoroughly.
FORMATION OF A NEW
SPECIES
WHAT’S A SPECIES

• Population whose members can


interbreed & produce viable, fertile
offspring.
• Reproductively compatible
HOW & WHY NEW SPECIES ORIGINATE?