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National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program

Department of Health
What is
HUMAN
HIV? This virus came from human being and
can only infect other human beings

IMMUNODEFICIENCY
The virus attacks the soldier cells of the
body & weakens, and eventually
destroys the immune system

VIRUS
Relies on the host (human body) to
make copies of itself and multiply.

National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program


Department of Health
A successful entry of the virus in
the human body
A lifetime infection
 No vaccine to prevent it
 No cure
 No specific signs and symptoms
 HIV destroys the immune system
 HIV causes
National AIDS/STIAIDS
Prevention & Control Program
Department of Health
CD4 & VIRAL LOAD

CD4+ T-cell (or soldier cells)


• HIV destroys the CD4 T-cells.
• CD4+ T-cell count are indicators of the strength of a
person’s immune system.
• It determines the stage of the HIV disease and predicts
the risk of complications.
VIRAL LOAD
• Amount of HIV in the person’s blood
• As the virus reproduces, it destroys CD4 T-cells and
reduces CD4 count.
The higher the VIRAL LOAD, the more quickly the
CD4 T-cells are destroyed
National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program
Department of Health
How HIV infects ?

CD4

CD4 cell helps us to fight against various infections

National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program


Department of Health
How HIV infects ?

HIV
OI’s
HIV attacks CD4 cell, multiply inside and
gradually kills them. Once CD4 are destroyed our
body’s resistance to fight infections goes down
and person suffers from lots of infections
National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program
Department of Health
How HIV infects ?

This advanced stage of HIV infection is called AIDS.


It takes many years for AIDS to develop and till that
time infected person usually remains healthy.

National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program


Department of Health
What is AIDS?
Acronym for (Aquired Immune
Deficiency Syndrome)
A condition where signs and
symptoms appear as a result of
various opportunistic infections
Advanced stage of HIV Infection
Life threatening
Remember: HIV causes AIDS

National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program


Department of Health
How does a Person
With HIV looks like?
You can’t tell if a
person has HIV by
merely looking at
him/her

National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program


Department of Health
•People with HIV DO NOT mean
they have AIDS

• HIV remains dormant in the body


for several years before some
unknown factors trigger the
infections associated with AIDS

•Median incubation period for


adult can be as long as 10 years.

•During this period, the people


with HIV may look healthy and
might be unaware of their HIV
status
National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program
Department of Health
National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program
Department of Health
Infected semen and vaginal fluid through vaginal, anal or oral sexual contact.

National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program


Department of Health
National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program
Department of Health
• Transplantation with HIV-
infected organs
National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program
Department of Health
National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program
Department of Health
Transmission risk

Unprotected vaginal intercourse M→F 0.1%

Unprotected vaginal intercourse F→M 0.05%

Unprotected anal intercourse 0.56%

Needle share; IV drug use 0.67%


Needle stick 0.3%
Mother to child transmission 13-48%
Blood products 90%
National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program
Department
MMWR January of Health
21, 2005 / 54(RR02);1-20 adapted
MODE OF TRANSMISION

tears saliva sweat

National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program


Department of Health
YOU CAN’T GET HIV/AIDS
FROM …

Swimming Pool Mosquito bite Toilet bowl


National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program
Department of Health
CASUAL CONTACT

KISSING SHARING UTENSILS


National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program
Department of Health
Sexual intercourse
MODES OF
TRANSMISSION Blood, blood products, tissues and
organs :
●Transfusion, transplant
●Use/Reuse of contaminated
needles, syringes, medical
utensils & other piercing
instruments

Mother-to-child
National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program
Department of Health
BODY BLOOD
FLUIDS SEMEN
VAGINAL FLUID
BREASTMILK

National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program


Department of Health
HIV PREVENTION
A - Abstinence
B - Be mutually faithful
C - Correct & Consistent
Condom use
D - Don’t use drugs (esp. Injectable)
E - Education, Early Diagnosis &
Treatment
National AIDS/STI Prevention and Control Program
National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program
Department of Health
WINDOW PERIOD 1/2
• The time from HIV infection to when the
usual laboratory tests can detect the
antibodies to the virus in an HIV-infected
person.
• This can last between six weeks to six
months. Different bodies take different
lengths of time to produce and release the
antibodies, sometimes called “clues” to the
virus.
National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program
Department of Health
When to recommend
Voluntary Counseling and
Testing (VCT)?

National AIDS/STI Prevention & Control Program


Department of Health
UPDATES
ON
TREATMENT, CARE &
SUPPORT
What is ARV?
ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS
• BLOCKS viral replication, thus preventing
disease progression and immune system
damage
• Body’s immune system gets a chance to
recover and fewer opportunistic infections
occur
• NOT a cure
Necessary Baseline Tests for an HIV +

 CD4
 CBC
 Chest X-ray, sputum AFB and/or sputum
culture to rule out active TB
 Pregnancy test for females of
reproductive age
 Baseline urinalysis, fasting blood sugar,
liver function tests, creatinine, & lipid
profile when indicated
What is a Treatment Hub?

• DOH-retained hospital, provincial/local government or private


hospital

• with a functional and trained HIV and AIDS Core Team (HACT)

• HACT (doctors, nurses, med techs, social workers pharmacist)


• Provides services (HIV counseling and testing, clinical
management of HIV patients, patient monitoring and other care
and support services for PLHIV)
• implement policies and guidelines on matters relating to HIV and
AIDS in a hospital setting
Treatment Hubs 13 (+ 5)
Baguio General Hospital
Cagayan Valley Medical
(CAR)
Center (II)
Ilocos Training & Reg
Med. Ctr (I) James L. Gordon Mem
Hosptial (III)
Phil. General Hospital
(NCR) Jose B. Lingad Memorial
Medical Center (III)
San Lazaro Hospital
(NCR)
Gen E Aguinaldo Mem
RITM (NCR) Hospital (IV-A)
Makati Med Ctr (NCR)
Bicol Reg. Training &
The Medical City (NCR) Teaching Hosp (V)

Western Visayas Med. Ctr


Vicente Sotto Mem. Med. Ctr
(VI)
(VII)
Corazon Locsin
Montelibano Mem. Reg Gov. Celestino Gallares Mem
Hospital (VI) Hosp (VII)

Zamboanga City Med. Ctr


Davao Medical Center (XI)
(IX)
Other Care & Support Services
• Psychosocial support (peer education /
counseling including family disclosure,
etc.)
• Home-based care
• Hospital visit
• Learning group sessions
DAVAO CITY
QUICK FACTS
Demographic 1993- Sept. 30-Dec. Cumulative
Data September 31, 2010 Data
2010 1993-Dec. 31,
2010
Total Reported 82 36 118
Cases
Asymptomatic
Cases
AIDS Cases
Males 72 36 107
Females 10 1 11
Youth 15-24 yo 14 0 14
Children<15 yo
Reported 16 0 16
Deaths due to
AIDS
MINDANAO

REGION PLHIV (LIVING) DECEASED TOTAL


Male Female Male Female
Region 9 0 1 0 0 1
Region 10 11 2 1 1 15
Region 11 98 13 16 5 150
Region 12 20 4 3 0 28
CARAGA 3 1 0 0 4
TOTAL 132 21 19 6 196
Maraming
Salamat!
SUKRAN!