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Welcome Back Quiz

What Are We Trying to Accomplish?

• Make students understand the importance of

communication as a strategic differentiator
at the workplace

• Enhance students’ self confidence in tackling

real world situations – interviews, business
meetings, daily interactions, formal
presentations, events

• Build Personal Executive Presence as a

means to succeeding in the workplace

Building Blocks -




What is Success?

• Success is defined as your ability to set and achieve

your personal and professional goals
• IQ’s relevance to success is estimated to be low -
Sternberg (1997) 4 to 25 percent, may be no higher
than 10 percent
• EQ’s relevance to success is estimated to high -
Stein & Book (2000) estimate 27 to 45 percent of job
• Begs a question:

Why do some people with a high IQ struggle in

life, while others with a moderate IQ succeed?

Emotional Intelligence

• Emotions are involved in everything people do: every

action, decision and judgement
• Emotionally intelligent people recognize this and use
their thinking to manage their emotions rather than
being managed by them
• The overall result of researches suggest that EI
plays a significant role in the job performance,
motivation, decision making, successful
management and leadership
• There is an increasing evidence that emotional
intelligence has greater impact than cognitive
intelligence on our ability to learn and our future

Emotional Intelligence

• Although IQ is often equated with success, common

sense, as well as research, now tells us that being
able to make your way in a complex world by
successfully dealing with people and your
environment is the most important element of

What Do We Know about IQ?

• Predicts school grades relatively wel

• Does not predict success in life

• Predicts 6% of jobs success

• Peaks in late teens

• Culture-bound

• Racial controversies

• Gets you in the door

Bar On EQ Inventory

• Intrapersonal (Self-Regard, Emotional Self-Awareness,

Assertiveness, Independence, and SelfActualization)

• Interpersonal (Empathy, Social Responsibility, and

Interpersonal Relationship)

• Stress Management (Stress Tolerance and Impulse


• Adaptability (Reality Testing, Flexibility, and Problem


• General Mood Scale (Optimism and Happiness)

Session 2


Remember the Johari Window?

Feedback - Inconvenience or Opportunity?

• Completes the communication loop

• Part of the receiver’s response communicated back

to the sender

• Enables the sender to evaluate the effectiveness of

the message

• An opportunity to engage with the audience and to

improve your communication

• Often provides additional information

Feedback at the Workplace

• Formal
• Performance Reviews

• Customer Satisfaction Surveys

• Employee Satisfaction Surveys

• Market Research

• Customer Testimonials, Complaints

• Informal
• Grapevine

Receiving Feedback Positively

• Well intentioned feedback is a great

opportunity to learn and improve. Be open to it

• Always try to separate out what is being said

from how it is being said.

• Always ask for the grounds on which it is being


• Don’t rationalize and blame others.

• Think about what you can do to improve the


Giving Constructive Feedback

• Be very careful with advice

• Consider the emotional state of the receiver

• Emphasise the positive

• Be descriptive rather than evaluative

• Focus on behaviour rather than the person.

• Own the feedback -- Use ‘I’ statements .

• Use positive language that suggests that any

problems are time-limited, situation specific,
and capable of solution

Sessions 3

Group Dynamics

If Two is Company and Three is Crowd,
What is a Group?

• We thrive on relationships

• Pairing is the most basic form of relationship

• Groups:
• Involve 3 or more individuals
• Are interacting and interdependent
• Are a primary source of interaction for business
• Can share common goals or engage in conflict
• Can be supportive or coercive
• Can exert a powerful influence over individuals

• Ties that bind a group – common experiences,

collaborative efforts, pain, suffering

Characteristics of Groups

• Groups use words, symbols and other NVC to:

• exchange meaning
• establish territory , and
• identify friends and strangers

• Group interactions may go well beyond the

functional perspective

• Groups can accomplish more than individuals can

• The larger a group grows, the more likely it is to sub


Characteristics of Groups

Characteristics of Groups

Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning

Tuckman’s Five Stages of Group Development
• Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning

• Forming – Orientation, guidance ( Dependence)

• Storming – Conflict over roles and responsibilities,

rules and procedures, individual recognition (

• Norming – Issue resolution, social agreements,

cohesion, establishment of group norms ( inter-

• Performing – Mutual assistance, creativity,

understanding goals and roles (independence)

• Adjourning -

Group Behaviour

• Task Behaviour

• Maintenance Behaviour

• Self-interest Behaviour

Member Roles

• Life cycle of member roles – Potential, New, Full,

Marginal, Ex

• Positive and Negative Roles

• Positive – Initiator, coordinator, elaborator,

evaluator, recorder

• Negative – Dominator, recognition seeker, special

interest pleader, blocker, joker

Session 4




• "Talent wins games, but teamwork and intelligence

win championships." --Michael Jordan

• "None of us is as smart as all of us." --Ken Blanchard

• "Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is

progress. Working together is success." --Henry Ford

• "The best teamwork comes from men who are working

independently toward one goal in unison." --James
Cash Penney

• “Individually, we are one drop. Together, we are an

ocean.” – Ryonosuke Satoro


What does it take from

each person on a team to
make a team really work?”


• Teams can often achieve higher levels of

performance than individuals because of the
combined energies and talents of the members.

• Including all team members in the process is crucial

to team effectiveness. Devils advocates are

• A team is only as productive as the weakest team


• Personalities and competition can play a role in a

team’s failure to produce

• Groupthink can also compromise the process and

reduce efficiency
Best Practices for Successful Teamwork

• Select team members wisely

•Select a responsible leader

• Promote cooperation

• Clarify goals, responsibilities

• Elicit commitment

• Instil Prompt Action

• Provide prompt feedback

Session 5



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• Present an opportunity to organize, share

information, collaborate with diverse team
members, and tackle objectives efficiently.

• Being prepared, taking leadership when

needed, and delegating effectively are
important elements of effective meetings.

• When conducting meetings, be sure to

leverage team energy and engagement as
much as possible.

Meeting Checklist

• Before The Meeting

• Pre-think
• Finalise approach
• Understand balance of power
• Tune in to other’s needs
• Openers
• Greeting
• Small talk – Keep it small!!
• Seating
• Presenting the Substance
• Beginning
• Explaining
• Keep the dialogue going
• Know when to stop

Meeting Checklist

• Handling Problems
• Anger, hostility
• Negativity
• Inattention
• Closure
• Recap and clarify
• Agree on next steps
• Follow up
• End on a high note

Effective Meeting – Best Practices

• Planning the Meeting

• Decide the Goal of the Meeting
• Decide Who Needs to be There
• Plan with Others
• Good agendas count
• Setting Up the Meeting
• Start and end on time
• Sign them in
• Do your best to make them comfortable
• All work and no play is no good
• Have a regular cycle

Effective Meeting – Best Practices

• Running the Meeting

• Do introductions
• Get agreement on agenda and rules
• Keep the discussion on track
• Watch the time
• Summarize the discussions
• Make minutes
• Encourage participation
• Use the power of your position wisely
• Following up on the Meeting
• Gather feedback from the Group
• Make follow-up calls

Handling Difficult Members

• Interventions
• Use the agenda and ground rules
• Have the group decide
• Use humour
• Accept, deal or defer
• Use body language
• Take a break
• Confront in the room
• Preventions
• Listen to understand
• Stay in your role
• Don’t be defensive

Being an Effective Meeting Facilitator

• Be a leader

• Indicate progress and the lack of progress

• Refocus discussion that has wandered off the point

• Transition between points effectively

• Highlight important points

• Assist with note taking if necessary

• Clarify any misunderstanding

• Offer a comprehensive summary at the end of meeting

Meeting Killers

• Wasting meeting time

• Wasting people's time

• Boring meetings that go nowhere

• Meetings for meeting's sake

Session 6

1. Effective Business Writing

2. Business Reports

Writing Can Be Learned..

• You are your own best ally when it comes

to your writing.

• The first step is to recognize you have the

skills to begin the process of improving and
harnessing your writing abilities

• There is no underestimating the power of

effort in good writing

• Be open to constructive criticism

Rules of Good Writing

Business people like to read writing that is:

• Clear, concise, conversational

• Easy to understand

• Specific, to the point

• Meets the reader’s expectations

• Reader oriented, and

• Jargon free

Writing Styles

• Involves choosing the appropriate level of

formality for the company and industry, the
particular document and situation, and the

• Colloquial – Informal conversational style of

• Casual - Use of everyday words and
expressions, in a familiar group context
• Formal - focuses on professional expression
with attention to roles, protocol, and

Elements of Rhetoric – an aid to writing

• Logos

• Ethos

• Pathos

Overcoming Barriers to Written Communication

• Please take care of the small details

• Get The Target Meaning

• Consider the Nonverbal Aspects of

Your Message

• Review, Reflect, and Revise

Effective Business Writing

1. “However great…natural talent may be, the art of writing

cannot be learned all at once”. - Jean-Jacques Rousseau

2. You can have brilliant ideas, but if you can’t get them
across, your ideas won’t get you anywhere” – Lee

3. “Good writing is clear thinking made visible”. – William


4. “Regardless of the changes in technology, the market for

well-crafted messages will always have an audience.” —
Steve Burnett

Business Can’t Survive Without Reports!!

• to keep records

• to inform all stakeholders

• to record failures and successes

• to communicate project progress

• to use for evaluation

• to determine further actions

Types of Reports

• Formal Reports

• Informal Reports

• Information Reports

• Analytical Reports

• Recommendation Reports

Anatomy of a Report

1. Cover Page
2. Title Page
3. Table of Contents
4. List of Illustrations
5. Executive Summary
6. Report Body
7. Conclusions
8. References
9. Appendix

Steps to Report Writing

• Define the problem

• Gather the necessary information

• Analyze the Information

• Organize the Information

• Write the Report

Ensuring an Effective Report – A 10 Point Checklist

1. Does the report consider the audience’s

2. Is the format appropriate to the report
3. Is it accurate, complete and documented?
4. Is it easy to read? ( font, arrangement,
5. Is written content supported by figures, tables
and charts?

Ensuring an Effective Report – A 10 Point Checklist

6. Are figures, tables and charts correctly

labelled and referenced?
7. Are results clear and concise?
8. Are recommendations reasonable and well-
9. Does the report speak for itself?
10. Does the report represent your best

Sessions 13, 14

The Art and Science of


Why do we communicate?

• Every conversation should have the following outcomes:

• Advancement of the agenda
• Shared learning
• Stronger relationships
• Verbal Communication takes place through three channels
• Factual
• Emotional
• Symbolic
• We communicate to persuade

Pressure vs Persuasion

“Not brute force but only persuasion and faith are the
kings of this world.” – Thomas Carlyle

“Thaw with her gentle persuasion is more powerful

than Thor with his hammer. The one melts, the other
breaks into pieces.” – Henry David Thoreau

A Working Definition of Persuasion

“Language or non-verbal behavior intended to

change people’s beliefs, opinions, attitudes,
and/or behavior.” – Encyclopedia of Human

Influence, Persuasion and Negotiation

The Persuasive Manager

• Shotgun managers, tacticians and bystanders

• Managers need to enhance persuasive power in all
directions – upward, downward, horizontal
• Powers managers enjoy
• Legitimate
• Coercive
• Reward
• Expert
• Referent
• 2 levels of persuasion – compliance, change of
attitudes, beliefs and values
• With genuine persuasion, the persuadee retains his

Persuasion Basics

• Ethos, logos, pathos

• The importance of framing
• Persuasive moves
1. Make oneself likeable
2. Leverage authority
3. Create indebtedness
4. Stoke the ego
5. Play on herd instinct
6. Get small commitments
7. Appeal to shared values
8. Engage in consultation
9. Use logical reasoning

Mastering the Art of Persuasion

• What You Can Do

• Connect emotionally
• Find the Common Ground
• Establish credibility
• Use vivid language and compelling evidence
• Negotiate
• Manage conflict
• What Not to Do
• Hard selling
• Not compromising
• Confusing argument with persuasion

Ethics in Persuasion

• The message should be truthful

• The persuader should be authentic

• The persuader should be respected

• The persuasive appeal should be equitable

• The person should be socially responsible

Persuasion – Situations for Discussions

The Persuasive Boss

“ Tej was the department head with the Indian operations of a

multinational telecom company. Ajit Kumar, one of the managers
reporting to him, had left all of a sudden, after bungling a couple of
important accounts. As the market was highly competitive, Tej had to
find someone to step in immediately. This meant giving additional
responsibility of accounts handled by Ajit to one of the other
managers. He knew that every one of them would be right to turn
down his request because they were already swamped with work. He
also knew that assigning the extra work to any one of them without
their willing acceptance would be counter- productive.
He zeroed in on Lata Nair and tried to persuade her”. How should he
go about this?
The Persuasive Boss

Persuasion Techniques

• Re-framing
• Emotional Appeal
• Ego stroking
• Appealing to shared values
• Making oneself likeable

Persuasion – Situations for Discussions

The Persuasive Employee

“ Abdul Farhat joined InterFin Systems 4 months ago as Senior Manager,

Training. His responsibility is to identify experts in a variety of relevant
fields – both hard and soft skills, and organize their training
programmes. During conversations with some of his senior colleagues,
he casually inquired if they would be interested in conducting some of
these programmes. Some of them were very enthusiastic and felt it
would be a good opportunity for bonding with employees.
The MD, however, is against the idea. She feels that training should be
conducted by outside experts and company managers should focus on
their work.
How should Abdul go about persuading his MD that his proposal would
benefit the company?”

The Persuasive Employee

Persuasion Techniques

• Logical reasoning
• Ego stroking
• Consultation
• Crowd support

Persuasion – Situations for Discussions

The Persuasive Peer

Behram Sabawala recently joined Voltas Ltd as CFO from Boeing, which
was known for its excellent business practices. Among many inefficient
practices at Voltas, Behram saw that meetings were conducted without
proper planning and the follow through was also very poor. He
suggested an approach called the 4W Model ( What, Where, Why,
When) and a system of colour coding the action items according to
criticality. This was followed with great success at Boeing.

When he initially suggested this during a meeting, his peers were less
than enthusiastic.

Behram was convinced that Voltas would benefit from this practice.
How can he persuade his peers?
The Persuasive Peer

- Ego stroking

- Crowd support

- Bargaining and offering exchanges

- Making personal appeals

- Quoting rules and traditions

- Consulting and seeking advice

- Setting a personal example

The Resistant Persuadee

Why we should we resist persuasion

- Fraudulent persuasion
- Inability to say No
- We can change the way we persuade others

The Resistant Persuadee
Why are we persuaded too easily?
- Sub rational decision making – great bargains
due to greed
- Reliance on heuristics
o Ayurveda is slow but safe
o We save money by buying at a discount
o Higher the price tag, better its quality
o Branded product is safer than unbranded
o Priests are men of God, you can trust them
- Mental laziness
• Accepting hasty or dishonest conclusions – sugar
• Overlooking inconsistencies – nuns bathing, bank
• Accepting conclusions built on insufficient data
• Inability to separate a person from his view
- Overconfidence
Persuasion in Action

• Negotiations
• Employee/ Employer Interactions
• Interviews
• Performance Review
• Appraisals
• Conflict Management
• Crisis Management

Sessions 15, 16


Understanding Negotiation
• Negotiation is an essential skill for coping with the
challenges of daily life
• Negotiation is…
• Overcoming obstacles in making a deal
• Discussing options to reach an agreement
• Arriving at a mutually agreeable solution to a problem
• Attempting to get what you want
• Persuading someone to do as you wish
• An act of cooperation, not confrontation
• A civilized method of conflict resolution
• Negotiation is not….
• Bargaining
• A contest or a game

A Practical Definition of Negotiation

“ Negotiation is a communication process

between two or more people in which rhey
consider alternatives to arrive at mutually
agreeable solutionsor reach mutually satisfactory
objectives”. Judith Fisher

Critical Elements of Negotiation

1. Knowledge or information
2. Time Pressures
3. Relative Strength

Understanding Negotiation

• Negotiation situations
• Selling
• Handling complaints
• Dispute resolution
• The golden rule:

“People will not negotiate with you unless they

believe you can help them or hurt them”.

• 3 fundamental questions
• What do you want?
• Why should they negotiate with you?
• What are your alternatives?
• The concept of BATNA
The Negotiation Process

Phase One –
Preparing to

Use Strategies
and Tactics

Phase Two
Interacting Reassess

Phase Three –

Negotiation Outcomes

Win-Win Win-Lose

Win- Lose-
Partial Lose

Win-Win Negotiation

• Key to successful negotiation – Information, information,

• Larger the number of issues, better the possibility of win-
• Negotiate issues simultaneously, not sequentially
• Look for post settlement settlements
• Contingent contracts
• Framing
• Responding to temper tantrums

Effective Negotiating Behaviour

• Desirable
• Asking open ended questions
• Testing, understanding and summarizing
• Explaining before disagreeing

• Defend-and-attack
• Argument dilution
• Immediate counter proposals

Negotiating Styles

Competing Collaborating

Assertiveness Compromising

Avoiding Accommodating


The Language of Negotiation

1. Bargaining Mix
2. Initial Offers
3. Target Point/ Aspiration Point
4. Resistance Point
5. Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement ( BATNA)
6. Settlement Point
7. Zone of Possible Agreement (ZOPA)

Common Negotiation Tactics

1. Exaggerated First Offer

2. Speed-ups
3. Delaying
4. Drawing Lines
5. Creating Competition
6. Concessions
7. Flattery
8. Buying your objections
9. Good Guy, Bad Guy
10. Split the Difference

And.. A Combination of the above

Writing an Effective Resume

• You only have 10 seconds!!

• Making Yourself Marketable
• Preparation is on!!
• Your Core Competencies
• Your USP
• Clear, accurate, up-to-date
• The AIDA Principle
• Ten Commandments of Resume Writing – p 289
• Printing, Packaging and Delivery

Structuring a Resume

• Resume Format
• Chronological
• Functional
• Achievement
• Hybrid
• Arranging the Parts
• Contact Information
• Objectives
• Education
• Work Experience
• Certifications, Awards, Honours
• References – Upon Request acceptable
• Dos and DON’Ts – pp 285-286
• Less Is More

The Cover Letter

• Equivalent to the elevator pitch

• You before Me
• Focus on the Fit

• Structuring the Cover Letter

• introduce yourself.
• mention the job (or kind of job) you're applying
for (or looking for)
• show that your skills and experience
match the skills and experience needed to do the
• encourage the reader to read your resume

Sessions 21, 22

• Conflict Management
• Crisis Management

Conflict – Positive and Negative Approaches

Positive Negative
Strengthening Destructive
Developmental Pain
Growth War
Courageous Hostility
Helpful Threat
Exciting Violence
Stimulating Competition
Creative Anger
Energizing Distress
Clarifying Alienation
Enriching Hopeless
Good Bad

Conflict Management

• Traditionally, conflicts have been viewed as

dysfunctional, destructive and damaging

• Conflict resolution should be viewed as an

opportunity for improvement and growth

• Most damaging when it is suppressed, avoided

or allowed to escalate out of control

• Unresolved conflicts may lead to persistent

situations, obstructing company growth

• Need to be cautious because it deals with

human emotions

Conflict Management

• Conflicts at the workplace arise due to personal


• 20% of managerial time goes in conflict


• Formal an informal methods to resolve conflicts

• Conflict situations may foster hostile attitudes

and lead to undesirable group formation

• Inadequate communication is an important

source of conflict

How Conflict Escalates The

Attack and
Counter attack

Actions speak
louder than

The Blame

Take a

Enter the Picking Up

Conflict the Pieces

Responding to Conflicts

• Yielding

• Avoiding

• Compromising

• Competing

• Collaborating

From Conflict to Consensus

• Workplace conflict is inevitable. Deal with it

• Progressive organizations design Conflict
Management Systems
• Customer complaints
• Employee Grievances
• Sexual harassment
• Ethics
• Conflict Resolution requires special skills since it
deals with emotions

Eight Paths to Conflict Resolution
1. Understand the context and culture of the conflict

2. Listen with your heart

3. Embrace and acknowledge emotions

4. Search below the surface for the hidden meaning of the


5. Separate what matters from what’s in the way

6. Learn from difficult behaviours

7. Solve problems creatively and commit to action

8. Explore resistance and mediate

The Mediator’s Role

1. Establish a trusted relationship with the parties

2. Encourage win-win negotiation

3. Assist the parties in working out acceptable solutions

4. Manage the mediation, make interventions and

keep up the momentum

5. Test assumptions and help frame negotiations

6. Do reality check of possible solutions and

alternatives to settlement

Incident, Crisis and Disaster

• An incident is an isolated, minor, distraction

• A crisis is a system breakdown that creates shared


• An event becomes a crisis when stakeholders

perceive it as one

• A crisis is unpredictable but not unexpected

• Disasters are sudden events that are large scale,

seriously disrupt systems and require new courses
of action to cope.

Crisis Management

Danger Opportunity Crisis

“A smooth sea never made a

skilled mariner”
- Old English Proverb
Internet, Social Media and Crisis Management

1. Characteristics
a. Participation
b. Openness
c. Conversation
d. Communities
e. Connectedness
2. Need for instant response

3. Multiple communication channels

4. Potential for rumour mongering

Crisis Management
• Crisis management refers to the set of
activities undertaken by an organization to
• anticipate, ward off or reduce the threats posed
by a potential crisis
• take mitigative action to contain the negative
impacts od the crisis, and
• put mechanisms in place to prevent recurrence
• Comprises 4 interrelated factors

Preparation Response

Prevention Revision

Crisis Management Preparation Response

Prevention Revision

• Prevention
• Steps taken to avoid a crisis
• Need to detect early warning signals and
act on them

• Preparation
• Diagnosing crisis vulnerabilities
• Selecting and training a crisis management
• Refining the crisis communication system
• Preparing a Crisis Management Plan (CMP)

Crisis Management Preparation Response

Prevention Revision

• Response
• Application of preparation components in a crisis
• Running simulated crises and drills
• Seeks to restrict the negative impact of a crisis
• Includes “ recovery”, the attempts to restore normalcy

• Revision
• Capturing lessons learnt during response to crisis
• Using the insights to refine its prevention, preparation
and response efforts

Crisis Types

1. Workplace violence

2. Rumors

3. Unexpected loss of key leadership

4. Malevolence

5. Discontented stakeholders

6. Operational disruptions

7. And many more…

Crisis Situations

BP and Texas City

It’s 1.20 PM on March 23,2005 , in Texas City, Texas.

You work as chief of Public Relations at the BP
refinery in the town. Suddenly, an explosion rocks the
ground. You go outside and see large flames and
smoke coming out. Alarms are going off, people are
running and shouting, and some people are heading
over to the unit to help.

What do you do now?

What does BP need to do to respond to the crisis?

Crisis Situations
Burger King Hack

You are a corporate communication specialist at

Burger King with responsibility for social media efforts.
On a Monday at 11 am, you notice a problem with
the company’s Twitter account. The Burger King logo
has been replaced with the McDonald’s logo.
There’s a tweet that claims Burger King has been sold
to McDonald’s . A number of rather obscene and
offensive tweets then appear under @BurgerKing.
They are clearly not the type of messages you want
associated wih your brand. You realize your Twitter
account has been hacked.

What do you do to prevent reputational damage?

Crisis Situations
Diamond Pet Foods and Toxic Dog Food

In late 2005, reports began to surface of dogs suffering

from aflatoxin in their food, with at least 76 dogs dying
from it. Aflatoxin is a fungus on corn that damage a dog’s
liver. The FDA found that all of the stricken dogs had been
eating Diamond pet food. The company tests all corn
shipments for aflatoxin and rejects shipment that test too
high. Diamond Pet Foods decided to recall the related
dog food products.

1. What type of instructional information would

customers need ?

2. What would you do to help make sure pet owners

heard of this recall?
Sessions 23, 24

• Communicating Across

A Glimpse into The
Workplace of Today…
 Heightened Global Competition

 Flattened Management Hierarchies

 Workplace innovations - WFH, flexible hours,

virtual teams

 Workforce Diversity

 Explosion of social media

Communicating Across Cultures
 This is the age of the MNC and the global village

 Frequency of working across borders and time zones

 Virtual teams

“The critical success factor for global leaders today is their

ability to develop trusting relationships and communicate
effectively with people of diverse cultures, to help them excel
as they collaborate across borders to deliver extraordinary

The Culture Map
 Communicating Low Context--------------High Context
 Evaluating Direct feedback Indirect feedback
 Persuading Principles First Applications First
 Leading Egalitarian Hierarchical
 Deciding Consensual Top down
 Trusting Task based Relationship based
 Disagreeing Confrontational Avoiding
 Scheduling Linear Time Flexible Time

Some Personal Observations on
Different Cultures
 Professionalism
 Concept of Time
 Language
 Communication Styles
 Cultural Immersion
 Salutation
 Commonly used terms
 Popular conversation topics – sports, politics, music

Communicating Across Cultures –
Some Rules
1. Don’t Underestimate the Challenge

2. Apply Mutliple Perspectives

3. Find the Positives in Other Approaches

4. Adjust, and Readjust, Your Position

5. Keep Learning