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F O W L C H OLER A

DEFINITION

Fowl Cholera is a highly contagious septicaemic


disease of chickens ( above 4 months age) &
turkeys,
Acute or Chronic,
Characterized by:
- Respiratory distress
- Discharge from the mouth
- Diarrhoea
- Swollen comb and wattles
- High morbidity & mortality
ETIOLOGY
Pasteurella multocida
Characteristics
• Gram -ve
• Occurs singly or occasionally in pairs or short
chains
• Non-motile, non spore forming
• 16 serotypes
• Easily destroyed by ordinary disinfectants,
sunlight, drying or heat
MAIN SOURCES OF INFECTION
Infection occurs through:

 Body excreta of diseased birds that contaminate


soil, water, feed, etc.,
 Carcasses of birds that have died of the disease
 Contaminated water supplies such as surface
tanks, ponds, lakes and streams
 Mechanical transmission by contaminated shoes
or equipment
TRANSMISSION
 Within a flock
• Contaminated soil, feed and water
• Cannibalism can disseminate the disease
when healthy chicks peck at dead birds.
 Between flocks
• Direct contact with sick or recovered birds or
their excretion
• Rats, predators and insects
 Vertical transmission - Does not occur

 Observation: larvae, nymph, adult ticks (argus


persicus) and red mite also become infected by
feeding the blood of infected birds but don’t transmit
the organism.
RESERVOIRS OF INFECTION

 Studies indicate that animals other than


birds may serve as reservoirs of infection
and actively spread the disease. These
animals include raccoons, dogs, cats, pigs,
etc. The disease is seldom seen in
chickens under four months of age,
but is commonly seen in turkeys
under this age.
CLINICAL SIGNS
Peracute:
 Death without any symptoms
Acute:
 Hunched up position
 Foetid diarrhea
 Respiratory distress
 Cyanosis mostly in unfeathered areas of head
 Mucous discharge from mouth
 Birds may die within 2 hours of exposure
 Mortality 10-50% (may reach 70% within 8 days)
Chronic:
Chronic F.C may follow

- Acute form of the disease


- Result from infection with organism of
low virulence
Signs – related to localized infections
Wattle form: Wattles fiery red & hot to touch
Arthritic form: Swollen limb joints & foot pads
Nervous form: Torticollis
Resp. form: Yellow caseous exudate in air sacs

Birds may

Succumb Remain infected Recover


Fowl cholera in geese, swollen
head
Chronic FC; serous inflammation
of conjunctiva.
Chronic FC; torticollis resulting
from meningeal
infection.
PATHOGENESIS
• Recovered flocks act as carriers for susceptible
• Routes of infection: oral, nasal, conjunctival or
wounds
• Colonize in nasal clefts
• Increase in number up to 24 hrs
• Reach lungs via air or blood (septicaemia)
• Hematogenous spread to other organs
• Course depends upon virulence of the organism
and susceptibility of the host
• Death occurs in 16-48 hours of infection in acute
cases due to dehydration
POSTMORTEM LESIONS
PER ACUTE:
• None or may have small haemorrhages on the
surfaces
ACUTE:
• Subserosal multiple petechial haemorrhages (visceral)
• Liver: swollen with multiple small focal areas
of coagulative necrosis and heterophilic
infiltration.
• Enteritis
• Increased Peritoneal and Pericardial fluid
• Free yolk, peritonitis, oophoritis, regressed follicles
Conti…
CHRONIC:
Localized inflammatory lesions
• Ovary: Yellow, putrid smelling material, resembling
cooked egg yolk, often surrounds the ovary and
may fill the body cavity
• Lungs: Consolidation & having a number of nodules
Pneumonia is common in Turkey.
• Wattles: Greatly swollen and indurated, first a
cloudy grey fluid and later a cheesy material
• Caseous arthritis- Hock joint involve
• Middle ear & Conjunctival sac: Caseous exudate
Submandibullar Oedema
Acute FC; hyperemia of chicken
duodenum.
A. Acute FC; subepicardial
hemorrhages in a turkey.

B. Acute FC; multiple necrotic


foci in turkey liver.

C. Acute
FC; turkey lung with extensive
hemorrhage and patchy areas
of necrosis (arrow) and
emphysema.
D. Submassive necrosis
with fibrous exudate on pleural
surface.

E. Acute FC; flaccid ovarian


follicle (arrow) with thecal
blood vessels less
normal.
F. evident than F. C hronic FC;
caseous exudate in sternal
bursa (A) and hock joint (B) of
a turkey.
Chronic FC; caseous exudate
(arrows) in turkey
humerus.
DIAGNOSIS
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION
 Material for bacterial isolation:
Acute cases: Liver, heart, blood
Chronic cases: Bone marrow
 Preferred culture media:
Dextrose starch agar, Trypticase soy
agar and broth
Does not grow on MacConkey’s agar

SMEARS: Gram –ve bipolar rods in impression


smear of liver or heart blood
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
• Newcastle disease__Haemorrhages
in proventriculus and intestine
• IBH__ Foci in liver
• Infectious Coryza__Facial swelling
• Fowl typhoid__ Pallor throughout
cadaver and thin watery blood & bile
stained enlarged liver
CONTROL
• Pick up and destroy all dead birds before
they can be cannibalized or fed on by
scavengers
• Biosecurity
• Sanitation
• All-in All-out practice
• Separate different species of birds
• Fence off stagnant pools, drain rain puddles
• Vaccination by Bacterins and Live vaccines
VACCINATION
During the course of an outbreak is seldom
effective

 Bacterins are not always effective.


Make two injections ( First between 8-12
weeks ) about one month apart.
 Live culture vaccine are only used in healthy
birds. Vaccinate chickens at 10 weeks and then
at 18-20 weeks
 Polyvalent vaccines are available. Vaccinate
at 08-12 weeks age and revaccinate 06-12
months latter.
SANITATION PRACTICES
Sanitation practices that aid in preventing
the disease are:
 Complete depopulation each year with
definite breaks between older birds and
their replacements
 Implement a rodent control program

 Dispose of dead birds properly

Conti…
 Provide safe, sanitary water
 Clean and disinfect all houses and
equipment after disposing of flock
 Keep birds confined to the house and
away from wild birds and animals
 Allow contaminated ranges or yards to
remain vacant for at least three months
Hemorrhagic liver with small foci
Small areas of necrosis in the liver
(corn meal liver)
Sick bird –hunched up position
Swollen wattles in broiler breeder
Fiery red, moist, inflamed wattles
Swollen throat
Swollen wattles in broiler breeder
Swollen wattles
Friable liver with focal necrotic
yellow foci