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# Automatic Street

## Light System Using

Relay and IC555
CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
COMPUTER ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, UET LHR
Group members

##  Arslan Ali (2018-CE-236)

Introduction

 Normally the turning on/off of the light is done manually using a switch whenever
there is need of a light. But here we have designed a system where there is
automatic turning on and off of the light whenever required.
 When darkness is detected then the sensor circuit gets activated and switches ON
automatically and when there is other source of light during daytime, the street light
gets OFF.
 The main purpose of this project is to switch ON and OFF street lights without manual
operation.
 By using this system energy consumption is reduced.
 By using this project as the basic principle we can design centralized intelligent
system for the perfect usage of streetlights in any place.
 An extra feature is that you can run this system for your desired interval of
time(2,3,5…minutes)
Objective

## Nowadays, human has become too busy and he is

unable to find time even to switch the lights on or off. This
can be seen more effectively in the case of street lights.
The present system is like, the street lights will be switched
on in the evening before the sun sets and they are
switched off the next day morning after there is sufficient
Required components

##  IC(LM-358 and 555 timer)  Buzzer

 470ohm resistor (1)  Connecting wires
 33k resistor(1)  Battery 9V
 1M Variable resistor(1)  Potentiometer(100k)
 100k resistor (1)  LED’s
 1k resistor (3)  Bread board
 220uF capacitor (1)  5V Relay
 0.1uF capacitor (1)  Switch
 22pF capacitor (2)
 Transistor BC547
 LDR
Circuit Diagram & Explanation
part(1)(right circuit)

##  In this circuit, a relay,transistor,ic and

potentiometer are used with LDR and LED.

Potentiometer.

##  Pin(1) is connected to transistor which is further

connected to relay terminal.

input terminal.

##  Pin 8 and 4 are connected to supply.

Part(2)(left crct)
 In this circuit, ic 555 timer Is used with
variable resistor,2 capacitors,resistors
and a battery is used.

##  Ic’s trigger pin(2) is connected to

capacitor(0.1uF) and resistor(33k).

##  Ic’s DC pin(7) which is also

connected tothreshold pin(6) is
connected to variable resistor.

##  Pin(3)is connected to a resistors and

our right circuit.

##  Battery 9V is applied to this part.

 Pin 4,8 are connected to +V.
 Pin 1 is connected to ground.
Working
part(1)>>Left circuit
 IC is an operational amplifier. Pins 2 and 3 of these IC are used to compare the voltage and
give us an output as high or low depending on the voltages at the input pins.
 In this circuit, LDR and 10KΩ Resistor form one potential divider pair, which is used to provide
a variable voltage at the non-inverting input (that is Pin 3). The second potential divider is
built around inverting input (Pin 2) with the help of 10KΩ Potentiometer, which will supply half
of the supply voltage to inverting pin.
 As we know the property of LDR that during the day time, its resistance is low, the voltage at
the non-inverting input (i.e. pin 3) is higher than the voltage at the inverting input (pin 2).
Hence, the output at the pin 1 is high. As a result, the relay is OFF and the LED (or the bulb)
will not glow.
 But in dimness or at night time, we know that resistance of LDR is high. Hence, the voltage
at non-inverting input pin 3 of the IC LM358 decreases than the inverting input pin 2. As a
result, the output pin 1 moves to low state, which further makes the relay to activate and the
LED or bulb associated to it will glow.
Part(2)
Explanation of timer(right circuit)

##  Pin 3 of IC timer produces output,some times High and sometimes LOW.

 Period of High or Low is found by (T=1.1*R*C ).
 We change this period by changing variable resistor’s value.
 Observed timings are:
1) 100k >>> 1 Minute 2) 300k >>> 2 Minute And SO ON………..
 When pin 3 gives high, Potential is developed across our right Circuit and when it is low,
potential is zero.
 Circuit runs for High Period and not for low period.
Circuit for understanding Working
Problem Statement

 Did you ever think that how the street lights automatically turn ON in the night and
turn OFF automatically at morning? Is there any person who comes to ON/OFF these
lights? There are several ways to turn on the street lights but the following circuit
describes an Automatic Street Light Controller Circuit that uses LDR and Relay to
perform this job automatically.
Applications

##  Used in street light applications.

 Used in Domestic applications

##  No man power required.

 Simple Construction.
 Efficient method.
 Less Consumption of electrical energy.
 Less maintenance.
 Cheap and economical
 Safety and Security
 Automated operation