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dr. Susianti, M.

Sc

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Objective

 Structure and functions of the primary and


secondary lymphatic organs and lymphatic
tissues

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LYMPHATIC ORGANS & TISSUES

-Primary lymphatic organs :

Thymus, bone marrow

- Secondary lymphatic organs & tissues

Spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils,

lymph nodules/MALTs

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The distribution of lymphatic organs
and vessels

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Components lymphatic tissue :
1. Reticular fibers
2. Mesenchymal reticular cells
3. Epithelial reticular cells
4. Lymphocytes : T and B lymphocytes,
Plasma cells
5. Macrophages
6. Antigen presenting cells

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Immunity reaction :
1. Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity : T lymphocytes
2. Humoral immunity : IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE and IgD
(antibodies)

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Origin of the main type of
lymphocytes

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THYMUS
The thymus is a central /primary lymphatic
organ situated in the mediastinum at about
the level of great vessels of the heart.
Structure :
Lobe
Lobules :
1. Cortex : small lymphocyte, epithelial reticular cell
and blood-thymus barrier.
2. Medulla : - Hassall’s corpuscles
- Extend into the core of each of the
lobules
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Thymus

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Epithelial
Desmosome reticular cell

Desmosome

Lymphocytes

Desmosome

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Histogenesis and involution :
• Third pharyngeal pouches (endodermal)

Functions :
1. T-lymphocytes production
2. Hormone production : thymopoietin, thymosin
3. Blood-thymus barrier

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LYMPH NODES
Lymph nodes are encapsulated spherical
or kidney-shaped organ composed of
lymphoid tissue.

Scattered in group along lymphatic vessels in


the neck, axilla, groin, thorax and abdomen,
they act as in-line filter of the lymph,
removing antigen and cellular debris and
adding Ig.
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LYMPH NODE (PANORAMIC VIEW)
1. Pericapsular fat and
connective tissue

2. Capsule 10. Arterioles

3. Lymphatic tissue 11. Efferent


lymphatic vessels
4. Capsule and 12. Hilus
afferent lymphatics
5. Cortex 13. Medullary
sinuses
6. Medulla 14. Medullary cords

7. Trabeculae
15. Cortical nodules
(Lymphatic nodules)
8. Blood vessels
in trabeculae 16. Marginal
(subcapsular) sinus
17. Germinal centers
9. Marginal
(subcapsular)
sinus 18. Veins

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Structure :
Cortex :
The dark-staining owing to presence of tightly packed
lymphocytes.
Secondary lymphoid nodules (containing primarily B
lymphocytes) with germinal centers.

Medulla :
Lighter staining than cortex.
Composed of cords of lymphoid tissue
(medullary cord)
separated by medullary sinuses.
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Paracortical zone :
This is the T-dependent region, lying
between the cortical lymphoid nodules
and the medulla.
Characteristized by the presence of
many high-endothelial post capillary
venules.

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 Lymphatic Vessels :
 Afferent lymphatic vessels
 Efferent lymphatic vessels

 Afferent vessels subcapsular sinus


peritrabecular sinus
medullary sinuses →
efferent vessels →
exiting through the hilum

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Function :
- Filtration of lymph

- Lymphocyte production (lymphopoiesis)

- Immunoglobulin production

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SPLEEN

Spleen, the largest of the lymphoid organ, lies


in the upper left quadrant of the abdominal
cavity. It serves as the immunologic filter of
the blood.

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SPLEEN
1. Peritoneum
and capsule
7. Germinal center

2. Splenic nodules 8. Tangential


(white pulp) section of a
splenic nodule

9. Central arteries
(t.s) in splenic
nodules
3. Trabeculae 10. Venous
sinuses in the
4. Trabecular red pulp
artery 11. Trabecular
veins
5. Splenic cords in
the red pulp
12. Trabeculae (t.s)
13. Sheathed artery
14. Pulp arteries
6. Central artery (arterioles)
(l.s)

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Structure :
Splenic pulp :
White pulp
- Central artery
- Periarterial lymphatic sheaths (PALS) :
T – dependent region
- Peripheral white pulp (PWP) :
B lymphocytes
Red pulp
- Red pulp cords (Billroth’s)
- Splenic sinusoid
The marginal zone :
- Border between
the white and red pulp
- Marginal sinuses
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Schematic view of blood circulation
of the spleen

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Splenic circulation :
a. Arterial supply :
Abdominal aorta Splenic artery
Trabecular artery Central arteries
Penicilliar arteriole Capillaries and sheeted
arterioles sinuses of
red pulp
b. Open and closed theories of splenic circulation
c. Venous drainage
Sinusoid red pulp veins Trabecular vein
Splenic vein inferior mesenteric vein
Hepatic portal vein liver

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Structure of the red pulp of the
spleen

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Functions :
1. Production of blood cells

2. Destruction of erythrocytes

3. Defense of the organism : filter the blood

4. Storage of blood

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TONSILS

This incomplete encapsulated lymphatic


aggregates contain many lymphatic
nodules. They underlie the mucous
membranes (epithelial lining) of
oropharynx.

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The palatine tonsil

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MALTs
(Mucosa-associated lymphatic
tissues)

 Lymphatic nodules are scatterred throughout


the lamina propria of mucous membrane
exp : Peyer’s patches

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Now I know

 Structure and functions of the primary


lymphatic organs and tissues
 Structure and functions of the secondary
lymphatic organs and tissues

Thank you

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