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History of Tourism

Learning Objectives

1. To explain the historical changes, which have


affected the growth and development of the
tourism industry.

2. To gain an overview of the origin of tourism in


the Philippines.

3. To identify the factors that favor the growth of


tourism.
Man has traveled since the earliest times although the term
tourism was used only in the early 19th century.

Tourism is derived from the Hebrew word torah, which


means studying, learning, searching.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Early Tourism

• Early tourism has two forms:

1. Travel for business

2. Travel for religious reasons

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Travel for Business
• Travel for business was mainly
trading with other countries or
tribes.

• The invention of money, writing


and wheel by the Sumerians
facilitated travel and exchange
of goods.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Travel for Business

• The early Phoenicians toured the


Mediterranean as traders.

• Both the Greeks and Romans were well-


known traders and as their respective
empires increased, travel became
necessary.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Travel for Religious Reasons

• Religious travel took the form of


pilgrimages to places of worship.

• Pilgrimages were made to fulfill a vow as


in case of illness or of great danger or as
penance for sins.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Early Tourism

• Travel received great impetus during the


Roman Empire due to the construction of
good roads and accommodations.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Tourism in the Medieval Period
5th to 14th centurty

• During the medieval period, travel declined


and limited.

• Travel, derived from the word travail,


became burdensome, dangerous and
demanding during this time.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Tourism in the Medieval Period

• No one during this time traveled for


pleasure due to: political instability, lack of
extensive trade and commerce and
robbers who preyed on travelers.

• Crusaders and pilgrims were the only ones


who traveled.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Tourism in the Medieval Period

• After the decline of the Roman Empire in


the 5th century, roads were not maintained
and they became unsafe.

• Thieves inflicted harm on those who dared


to travel.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Tourism During the Renaissance
and Elizabethan Eras
14th to 17th century

• It is characterized by the Grand Tour in


which scholars from both the middle and
upper classes seeking positions in court
were encouraged on a 3-year exploration
to widen their education.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Typical Grand Tourist

Map of Grand Tour


Tourism During the Renaissance
and Elizabethan Eras

• There was also an increase in the popularity of “spas” in


which the sick sought a remedy for their illness by
bathing in the mineral springs or medicinal baths.

• The term “spa” is derived from the Walloon word “espa”


meaning fountain.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Tourism During the Industrial
Revolution
17th to 18th century

• It stimulated pleasure travel due to increase of


wealth, the creation of a large and prosperous
middle class, improvements in transportation,
the need of the working class to find relief from
their work, and the desire for relaxation and
adventure.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Tourism in the 19th Century

• Two technological developments in the


early part of the 19th century:

1. Introduction of the railway and the;


2. Development of steam power

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Tourism in the 19th Century

• As tourism became organized in the later years


of the 19th century, the organization of travel
became an established institution. Travel
organizers emerged.

• The first and most famous of these was Thomas


Cook.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Tourism in the 20th Century

• At the beginning of the 20th century, pleasure


travel continued to expand, encouraged by the
increasing wealth, curiosity and outgoing
attitudes of the people as well as the increasing
ease of such movement.

• The introduction of the jet aircraft, private car,


paid holidays, shorter workweek, annual
holidays.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Origin of Tourism in the
Philippines

• Tourism in the Philippines began when the


original inhabitants of the country roamed
around in search for food.

• Inter-tribe travel occurred although mode of


travel was crude.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Origin of Tourism in the
Philippines

• A more recognizable form of tourism appeared


in the Philippines when the country was
discovered by Ferdinand Magellan and when
galleons or wooden boats sailed between
Mexico and the Philippines during the galleon
trade.

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


• Before World War II, there were no statistical
data available, hence, it was difficult to
determine tourist activities.

• In 2012, the Philippines recorded 4.27 million


tourist arrivals, after the Department of
Tourism launched a widely publicized tourism
marketing campaign titled "It's More Fun In the
Philippines".

Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.


Factors that Favor the Growth of
Tourism
1. Rising disposable income for large sections of the population. More
money means more travel.

2. Growth in the number of retired persons who have the desire and the
energy to travel. Life expectancy is increasing. There are fewer deaths
now than before which is the result of more concern for diet and
exercise.

3. Increase in discretionary time. Shorter workweeks and longer


vacations, paid holidays to their workers. The workweek has decreased
from 50 hours to less than 40 hours.

4. Greater mobility of the population. People became accustomed to


travel because of the increase in travel opportunities.
. Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.
Factors that Favor the Growth of
Tourism
5. Growth in the number of “singles.” People living alone have more
free time than couples; hence, they want to socialize through
travel.

6. Greater credit availability through credit cards and bank loans. “


Travel now, pay later” stimulates travel.

7. Higher educational levels. Since millions of students attend


colleges and universities, they tend to become more interested in
foreign countries.

8. The growth of cities. The industrial revolution brought about the


migration of people from the rural areas to the urban centers
resulting to urbanization. 25
Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.
Factors that Favor the Growth of
Tourism

9. Simplification of travel through the package tour.


Tour packages---everything is planned, arranged.

10. Growth of multinational business. Worldwide business


interests increase both the need and habit of travel.

11. Modern transportation technology. Technological


advances in transportation have made long-distance
travel faster, less expensive and more comfortable.

26
Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.
Factors that Favor the Growth
of Tourism

12. Shift in values. Several people place more value in


experience rather than material possessions.

13. Smaller families and changing roles. American and


European birthrates have declined, giving the adults more
free time to get away from family responsibilities. Sexual
equality and shifts in household roles encourage travel.

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Principles of Tourism Part 1 By: Zenaida L. Cruz, Ph.D.