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BIOTECHNOLOGY

By Aishwarya Bhatia
9-D
WHAT IS BIOTECHNOLOGY ?

• The exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes,


especially the genetic manipulation of microorganisms for the production
of antibiotics, hormones, etc. is called biotechnology
Why Biotechnology ?
Biotech is helping to heal the world by harnessing nature's own toolbox
and using our own genetic makeup to heal and guide lines of research by:
• Reducing rates of infectious disease;
• Saving millions of children's lives;
• Changing the odds of serious, life-threatening conditions affecting
millions around the world;
• Tailoring treatments to individuals to minimize health risks and side
effects;
• Creating more precise tools for disease detection; and
• Combating serious illnesses and everyday threats confronting the
developing world.
FUEL THE WORLD

Biotech uses biological processes such as fermentation and harnesses biocatalysts such as
enzymes, yeast, and other microbes to become microscopic manufacturing plants. Biotech is
helping to fuel the world by:
• Streamlining the steps in chemical manufacturing processes by 80% or more;
• Lowering the temperature for cleaning clothes and potentially saving $4.1 billion
annually;
• Improving manufacturing process efficiency to save 50% or more on operating costs;
• Reducing use of and reliance on petrochemicals;
• Using biofuels to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 52% or more;
• Decreasing water usage and waste generation; and
• Tapping into the full potential of traditional biomass waste products.

• FEED THE WORLD
• Biotech improves crop insect resistance, enhances crop herbicide
tolerance and facilitates the use of more environmentally
sustainable farming practices. Biotech is helping to feed the world
by:
• Generating higher crop yields with fewer inputs;
• Lowering volumes of agricultural chemicals required by crops-
limiting the run-off of these products into the environment;
• Using biotech crops that need fewer applications of pesticides and
that allow farmers to reduce tilling farmland;
• Developing crops with enhanced nutrition profiles that solve
vitamin and nutrient deficiencies;
• Producing foods free of allergens and toxins such as mycotoxin;
and
• Improving food and crop oil content to help improve cardiovascular
health.
SOME MED-TECH AND AGRO-BASED INVENTIONS IN
Some MedTech and
THE BIOTECH INDUSTRY
agro-based Inventions
In the Biotech Industry
1)Diabetes: Google Lens and Intarcia Implant
1)Diabetes:
The Google
Google Lens consists of a Lens
wirelessand
chip Intarcia
and a Implant
miniaturized
The Googleglucose sensor. A tiny
Lens consists of apinhole
wirelessin the lens
chip andallows for
a miniaturized glucose sensor. A tiny
tear fluid to
pinhole inseep
the into
lensthe sensorfor
allows to tear
measure
fluidblood sugarinto
to seep levels.
the sensor to measure blood
There
sugar is levels.
a wireless antenna
There is a inside
wirelessof the contact that
antenna is thinner
inside of thethan
contact that is thinner than a
ahuman’s
human’s hair,
hair,which
which willwill
act act
as aas
controller to communicate
a controller to communicate information to the
information to the wireless device.
wireless device.
2)Rewiring
2)Rewiring plantplant defense
defense genes togenes
reduce tocropreduce crop waste
• Plants could be genetically rewired to better resist disease, helping safeguard crop
waste
yields
Plants worldwide
could according
be genetically tobetter
rewired to new research. Defensive
resist disease, helping feedback control system
developed
safeguard enables
crop yields plants according
worldwide to strengthen
to new their defenses to withstand attack by re-
research.
wiringfeedback
Defensive existingcontrol
gene system
connections. The
developed system
enables usestosame approach as aircraft
plants
autopilots
strengthen theiruse to counteract
defenses turbulence.
to withstand attack by re-wiring existing
gene connections. The system uses same approach as aircraft
autopilots use to counteract turbulence.
The
The Bionic
Bionic Pancreas…
Pancreas…
Then
Then there
there isisthe
theoption
option of
of replacing
replacing the entire
the organ
entire in Diabetes…A
organ in researchresearch
Diabetes…A
team from the University of Cambridge (UK) has managed to develop a closed
team
loopfrom the University
beta-cell ofdelivery
based insulin Cambridge
system(UK) has managed
for diabetes to develop
type I. This bionic a closed
loop beta-cell
pancreas based has
prototype insulin
beendelivery
constructedsystem for diabetes
for human type
trials using an I. This app
iPhone bionic
which monitors
pancreas prototype blood
hasglucose levels.
been constructed for human trials using an iPhone app
which monitors blood glucose levels.

Rice with fewer stomata requires less


water and
Rice with fewer stomata is betterless
requires suited for and
water climate
is
change change
better suited for climate
A new rice
A new study finds that engineered study
linesfinds thatstomatal
with low engineered
density rice
used lines
just 60
percent of the normal amount of water and were able to survive drought and high
with low stomatal density used just 60 percent
temperatures for longer than unaltered plants.
of the normal amount of water and were able
to survive drought and high temperatures for
longer than unaltered plants.
GENETICALLY MODIFIED NEWS

Genetically humanized mice


could boost
How plant breeding technologies fight against aggressive hepatitis
could make fruits and vegetables In research that could lead to
more exciting to eat treatments for an aggressive
type of liver
Forget vegetables with dull colors and fuzzy skin disease, scientists describe a
or fruits that lack of flavor -- the produce genetically humanized
aisle of the future could offer plant products mouse that can
that are designed for creative cooks and fussy be persistently infected with
eaters. In a new article, food researchers hepatitis delta virus.
describe how new breeding technologies
have
the potential to enhance the shape, size, color,
and health benefits of produce, as well as to
inform conventional breeding programs.
Genetically
humanized mice Smart Contact Cancer Spit
could boost Lens
fight against Glaucoma, the second-leading Test
aggressive hepatitis cause of blindness, develops
In research that could lead to when pressure builds inside the Forget biopsies—a device designed
treatments for an by researchers at the University of
eye and damages retinal cells.
aggressive type of liver California-Los Angeles detects oral
Contact lenses developed at the cancer from a single drop of saliva.
disease, scientists describe a
genetically humanized University of California-Davis Proteins that are associated with
mouse that can contain conductive wires that cancer cells react with dyes on the
be persistently infected with continuously monitor pressure sensor, emitting fluorescent light
hepatitis delta virus. that can be detected with a
and fluid flow within the eyes of
at-risk people. The lenses then microscope. Engineer Chih-Ming Ho
relay information to a small notes that the same principle could
be applied to make saliva-based
device worn by the patient; the
diagnostic tests for many diseases.
device wirelessly transmits it to a
computer. This constant data flow
will help doctors better
understand the causes of the
disease. Future lenses may also
automatically dispense drugs in
response to pressure
changes.