Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 60

Ch.

22:
Astronomers

Mr. Litaker

7/25/2019 1
Our Solar System
 What do we know?

Time required for Earth to make


one rotation on its axis?

24 Hours
7/25/2019 2
Revolution
 Time required for Earth to make
one revolution around the sun?

365 ¼ Days

7/25/2019 3
7/25/2019 4
Time of Year
 During what time of the year is the
Earth closest to the sun?
Perihelion Winter
The northern hemisphere tilted away from sun during
winter resulting in less solar heating even though the
earth is closer to sun.
* During what time of the year is the Earth
farthest from the sun?
Aphelion Summer
The northern hemisphere tilted towards
sun resulting in more solar heating
7/25/2019 5
Orbit
 What type of orbit does
the Earth have around
the sun?

elliptical
7/25/2019 6
Early Astronomy

Astronomy – is the science


that studies the universe.
Astronomy deals with the
properties of objects in
space and the laws under
which the universe
7/25/2019
operates. 7
Our Solar System
The Historical Perspective
 Aristotle
 Ptolemy
 Copernicus
 Tycho Brahe
 Kepler
 Galileo
 Newton

7/25/2019 8
7/25/2019 9
Aristotle  Greek philosopher (384- 322
B.C.)
 Believed that the Earth was the
center of the Universe.
 Geocentric model – Earth
Centered
** Thought – the Sun, Stars, and
other Planets revolved around the
Earth.
 Concluded the Earth was round
because…
It always cast a curved
shadow on the moon.
7/25/2019 10
7/25/2019 11
Ptolemy 141 A.D.
 Much of our knowledge of Greek
astronomy comes from Claudius
Ptolemy.
 Supported Geocentric Model
 Since Ptolemy’s model predicted
motions of the planets, his model
went unchallenged for nearly 13
centuries.

7/25/2019 12
7/25/2019 13
Heliocentric Model
Aristarchus – (312-230 B.C.)
was the 1st to believe that the sun
was the center of the universe.
This was referred to as a
Heliocentric model.
Everything orbits the sun in this
model.
7/25/2019 14
Viewpoints
Even though Aristarchus provided
some evidence of distances and
sizes that were not completely
accurate ---
The Geocentric Model
dominated western thought for
nearly 2000 years!!!
7/25/2019 15
Nicolaus Copernicus
Cleric and Astronomer
1473 - 1543
Finally we shall
place the Sun himself
at the center of the
Universe.
All this is suggested by
the systematic
procession of events
and
the harmony of the
whole Universe, if only
we face the facts,
as they say, 'with both
7/25/2019 eyes open'. 16
Nicolas Copernicus
“Copernican Revolution”
The 1st  Polish astronomer (1473-1543)
Great
Astronomer
 Believed that the sun was the
To emerge center of the solar system.
In the
Middle  Heliocentric Model – Sun
Ages! Centered
7/25/2019 17
7/25/2019 18
Tycho Brahe
 Tycho Brahe Danish Astronomer
 (1546 – 1601)
 Built an observatory financed by the
king of Denmark.
 Made detailed observations and
records of the planets.

 Assisted by mathematician Johannes


Kepler
7/25/2019 19
7/25/2019 20
Johannes Kepler
 German astronomer (1571- 1630)

 Used the planet data of Tycho


Brache and developed
Kepler’s: Three Laws of
Planetary Motion.

 Look in the book and copy his 3


laws.
 618
7/25/2019 21
First Law
 The First Law:
 Planets move in ellipses with the
Sun at one focus.

Circular and Elliptical Orbits Having the Same Period and Focus
7/25/2019 22
2nd Law
 The radius vector describes equal areas
in equal times. (The Second Law)

 For a circle the motion is uniform as shown


above, but in order for an object along an
elliptical orbit to sweep out the area at a
uniform rate, the object moves quickly when
the radius vector is short and the object
moves slowly when the radius vector is long.

7/25/2019 23
3rd Law
 The Third Law:
 The squares of the periodic times are to
each other as the cubes of the mean
distances.

 This law he published in 1619 in his


Harmonices Mundi . It was this law,
not an apple, that lead Newton to his
law of gravitation. Kepler can truly be
called the founder of celestial
mechanics.
7/25/2019 24
Galileo Galilei

7/25/2019 25
Galileo Galilei
 Italian Mathematician (1564 –
1642)

 Invented the telescope in 1608 and


observed… ?

Look in the book on page 619 and


list the 5 discoveries Galileo made
with his telescope.
7/25/2019 26
Galileo
 Galileo quickly discovered that our Moon had
craters, that Jupiter had it's own moons, that
the Sun has spots, and that Venus has phases
like our Moon. Galileo, who lived from 1564 to
1642, made many more discoveries. Galileo
claimed that his observations only made sense
if all the planets revolved around the Sun, as
championed by Aristarchus and Copernicus,
not the Earth, as was commonly believed then.
The powerful Inquisition made Galileo publicly
recant this conclusion, but today we know he
was correct.
7/25/2019 27
Newton

7/25/2019 28
Isaac Newton
 English Scientist 1643 to 1727

 Recognized as the greatest Scientific


intellect of all time.
 Best known for his laws of motion and
universal gravitation formula.

 What does the


Law of Universal Gravitation state ?
7/25/2019 29
Play CD:
Discover Astronomy
Section II

7/25/2019 30
7/25/2019 31
Earth – Moon Relationships

7/25/2019 32
7/25/2019 33
Sidereal Day vs. Solar Day
 Solar Day – 24 Rotation using the
Sun as our reference.

 Sidereal Day – 23 hours 56


minutes for one complete rotation
using a star other than the sun.
There is a loss of 4 minutes or 10.

Power Line Example: At Night

7/25/2019 34
7/25/2019 35

7/25/2019 36
7/25/2019 37
7/25/2019 38
What season is the
Northern Hemisphere
experiencing?

Summer Where is the


most direct
rays striking?

7/25/2019 Tropic of Cancer39


7/25/2019 40
7/25/2019 41
7/25/2019 42
7/25/2019 43
7/25/2019 44
7/25/2019 45
7/25/2019 46
7/25/2019 47
7/25/2019 48
7/25/2019 49
7/25/2019 50
7/25/2019 51
7/25/2019 52
7/25/2019 53
7/25/2019 54
7/25/2019 55
Where does a.m. & p.m.come from

7/25/2019 56
7/25/2019 57
7/25/2019 58
7/25/2019 59
7/25/2019 60