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PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I

UNITS AND DIMENSIONS


• Mass and Weight • Pressure and Temperature
• Specific Volume and Density • Flowrates
• Specific Weight • Conservation of Mass
• Conservation of Energy
UNITS AND DIMENSIONS
Dimensions – is the name given to a physical quantity. (ex. mass,
temperature, time and length)

Units – is the standard measure of dimension (i.e. kilogram, meter, second


and Kelvin)
INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS

1. Systeme International (SI)


2. Meter – Kilogram – Seconds
3. Centimeter – Gram – Seconds
4. English (FPS)
UNITS AND DIMESIONS
UNITS AND DIMESIONS
UNITS AND DIMESIONS
UNITS AND DIMESIONS
UNITS AND DIMESIONS
UNITS AND DIMESIONS
ACCELERATION
Newton’s Law of Acceleration states that the acceleration of a particular
body is directly proportional to the resultant force acting on it and inversely
proportional to its mass.
𝐹
𝑎=𝑘
𝑚
𝑚𝑎
𝑘=
𝐹

where k is the gravitational constant gc


ACCELERATION
• System of Units (gc = 1.0)
a. CGS system: 1 dyne force accelerates 1 gram – mass (gm) at 1 cm/𝑠 2
b. MKS system: 1 newton force accelerates 1 kilogram – mass (kgm) at 1
m/𝑠 2
c. FPS system: 1 pound force (lbf) accelerates 1 slug mass at 1 ft/𝑠 2

• System of Units (gc ≠ 1.0)


a. 1 gram - force accelerates 1 gram – mass (gm) at 980.66 cm/𝑠 2
b. 1 kilogram – force (kgf) accelerates 1 kilogram – mass (kgm) at 9.8066 m/𝑠 2
c. 1 pound force (lbf) accelerates 1 pound – mass (lbm) at 32.174 ft/𝑠 2
ACCELERATION
• Derived Conversions:

1 𝑘𝑔𝑓 = 9.8066 N 1 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔 = 32.174 𝑙𝑏𝑚


FORCE
A unit of force is one that produces unit acceleration in a body of unit mass.

𝑙𝑏𝑚 − 𝑠2
1 𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑙 = (1 lbm ) (ft/𝑠 2 ) 1 𝑙𝑏𝑓 =
𝑓𝑡
MASS and WEIGHT
The mass of a body is the absolute quantity of matter in it.
The weight of a body means the force of gravity Fg on the body.

Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation relates the force of attraction


between two masses, and in equation form is:
𝑚1𝑚2
Fg = G 2
𝑟
where Fg is the force of attraction (for earth’s attraction on earthly system,
the force of gravity) between the masses m1 and m2 that r distance
4
apart.
−8 𝑙𝑏𝑓 −𝑓𝑡 2 𝑓𝑡
G is the gravitational constant (3.44x10 𝑠𝑙𝑢𝑔2 or 4 ), in MKS;
𝑙𝑏𝑚 − 𝑠𝑒𝑐
−11 𝑁 −𝑚2
6.670𝑥10
𝑘𝑔2
MASS and WEIGHT
An astronaut weighs 730 N in Houston, Texas where the local acceleration of
gravity is g = 9.792 m/𝑠 2 . What are the astronaut’s mass and weight on the
moon, where g = 1.67 m/𝑠 2 ?
MASS and WEIGHT
A car whose mass is 2 metric tons is accelerated uniformly from standstill to
100 kmph in 5 sec. Find the mass in pounds, the acceleration, the driving
force in newtons, and the distance travelled.
MASS and WEIGHT
Five masses in a region where the acceleration due to gravity is 30.5 fp𝑠 2 are
as follows: 500 g of mass; 800 gf;15 poundals; 3lbf and 0.10 slug of mass.
What is the total mass expressed (a) in grams, (b) in pounds, and (c) in slugs?
MASS and WEIGHT
Note that the gravity of acceleration at equatorial sea level is g = 32.088 fp𝑠 2
and that its variation is - 0.003 fp𝑠 2 per 1000 ft ascent. Find the height in
miles above this point for which (a) the gravity acceleration becomes 30.504
fp𝑠 2 , (b) the weight of a given man is decreased by 5%. (c) What is the
weight of a 180 lbm man atop the 29 131 ft Mt. Everest in Tibet, relative to
this point?
DENSITY, SPECIFIC VOLUME and SPECIFIC
WEIGHT
𝑚
Density (ρ) is its mass per unit volume:ρ =
𝑉
1
Specific Volume (ν) is the volume per unit mass:ν =
ρ
𝐹
Specific Weight (Ƴ) of any substance is the force of gravity in unit volume:Ƴ =
v
ρ𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑
Specific Gravity (SG): spec. gravity =
ρ𝑟𝑒𝑓
DENSITY, SPECIFIC VOLUME and SPECIFIC
WEIGHT
The mass of a fluid system is 0.311 slug, its density is 30 lb/𝑓𝑡 3 and g is 31.90 fp𝑠 2 .
Find (a) the specific volume, (b) the specific weight, and (c) total volume.
DENSITY, SPECIFIC VOLUME and SPECIFIC
WEIGHT
A cylindrical drum (2 – ft diameter, 3 – ft height) is filled with a fluid whose density
is 40 lb/𝑓𝑡 3 . Determine (a) total volume of the fluid, (b) its mass in pounds and
slugs, (c) its specific volume, and (d) its specific weight where g = 31.90 fp𝑠 2 .
DENSITY, SPECIFIC VOLUME and SPECIFIC
WEIGHT
Two liquids of different densities (ρ1 = 1500 kg/𝑚3 , ρ2= 500 kg/𝑚3 ) are poured
together into a 100 – L tank, filling it. If the resulting density of the mixture is 800
kg/𝑚3 , find the respective quantities of liquids used. Also, find the weight of the
mixture; local g = 9.675 mp𝑠 2 .
PRESSURE
PRESSURE CONVERSIONS
1 atm = 14.7 psi (lbf/𝑖𝑛2 )
= 101325 Pa
= 101.325 kPa
= 760 mmHg
= 760 Torr
= 29.92 inHg
= 33.91 ft water
1 bar = 105 Pa

P = P0 + Pg
PRESSURE
Given the barometric pressure of 14.7 psia, make these conversions:
a. 80 psig to psia and to atmosphere
b. 20 inHg vacuum to inHg abs and to psia
c. 10 psia to psi vacuum and to Pa
d. 15 inHg gage to psia, torrs and to Pa.
PRESSURE
A dead weight gage with a 1 cm diameter piston is used to measure
pressures accurately. In a particular instance a mass of 6.14 kg (including
piston and pan) brings it into balance. If the local g = 9.82 m/𝑠 2 . What is the
gage pressure being measured? If the barometric pressure is 748 torr, what is
the absolute pressure?
TEMPERATURE
• Absolute temperature is the
temperature measured from
absolute zero.
• Absolute zero temperature is the
temperature at which all
molecular motion ceases.
(KE = 3RT/2NA)
TEMPERATURE
Show that the specific heat of a substance in BTU/lbm - ˚F is numerically
equal to cal/g - ˚C.
PROBLEM
An instrument to measure the acceleration of gravity on mars is constructed
of a spring from which a mass of 0.40 kg is suspended at a place on earth
where the local acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/𝑠 2 , the spring extends 1.08
cm. When the instrument package is landed on Mars, it radios the
information that the spring is extended 0.40 cm. What is the Martian
acceleration of gravity?
PROBLEM
PROBLEM
PROBLEM
CONSERVATION OF MASS
The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass is indestructible.
If steady flow exists in a channel and the principle of conservation of
mass is applied to the system, there exists a continuity of flow,
defined as: "The mean velocities at all cross sections having equal areas
are then equal, and if the areas are not equal, the velocities are
inversely proportional to the areas of the respective cross sections.“ This
is expressed in the Continuity Equation:
𝑄 = 𝑣𝐴
Q = the volumetric flow rate
A = the cross sectional area of flow
V = the mean velocity
CONSERVATION OF MASS
Mass Flowrate Volumetric Flowrate
CONSERVATION OF MASS
A fluid moves in a steady flow manner between two sections in a flow line.
At section 1: A1 = 10𝑓𝑡 2 ,ν1 = 100 fpm, v1 = 4𝑓𝑡 3 /lb. At section 2: A2= 2𝑓𝑡 2 , ρ2
= 0.20 lb/𝑓𝑡 3 . Calculate (a) the mass flow rate and (b) the speed at section 2.
CONSERVATION OF MASS
Two gaseous streams enter a combining tube and leave as a single mixture.
These data apply at the entrance section:
ft3
For one gas, A1 = 75 𝑖𝑛2 , ν1 = 500 fps, v1 = 10 𝑙𝑏
𝑙𝑏
For the other gas, A2 = 50 𝑖𝑛2 , 𝑚2= 16.67 lb/s, ρ2 = 0.12 𝑓𝑡 3
𝑓𝑡 3
At exit, ν3= 350 fps, v3= 7 . Find (a) the speed v2 = at section 2, and (b) the
𝑙𝑏
flow area at the exit section.
CONSERVATION OF MASS
If a pump discharges 75 gpm of H2O whose specific weight 0s 61.5 lbf/ft 3 and
g = 31.95 ft/s2 . Find (a) mass flowrate in lb/min and (b) the total time
required to fill a vertical tank 10 feet in diameter and 12 feet – high.
CONSERVATION OF MASS
A 10 – ft diameter by 15 – ft height vertical tank is receiving water (ρ = 62.1
lb/ cu ft) at the rate of 300 gpm and is discharging through a 6 – in ID line
with a constant speed of 5 fps. At a given instant, the tank is half full. Find
the water level and the mass change in the tank 15 min later.
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Energy, can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be transformed
from one form or another. The flow of energy is described by work.
Work is performed whenever a force acts through a distance. By its
definition, the quantity of work is given by the equation:

𝑑𝑊 = 𝐹 𝑑𝑙
where F is the component of force acting along the line of the displacement
dl.
CONSERVATION ENERGY
CONSERVATION OF KINETIC ENERGY CONSERVATION OF POTENTIAL ENERGY
𝑊 = ∆𝐾𝐸 𝑊 = ∆𝑃𝐸
𝑑𝑊 = 𝐹 𝑑𝑙 𝑑𝑊 = 𝐹 𝑑𝑧

𝑚∆𝑣 2 𝑚𝑔∆𝑧
𝑊= 𝑊=
2𝑔𝑐 2𝑔𝑐
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
An automobile having a mass of 1250 kg is travelling at 40 meter per square
seconds. What is the kinetic energy in kJ? How much work must be done to
bring it to a stop?
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Calculate the net work for one cycle consisting of the isothermal expansion
(A  B) and compression (B  A) of one mole of ideal gas at 273.15 K
between 1 atm and 0.5 atm. The expansion involves lifting a 5 kg through 22
m. The compression is accomplished by a mass of 40 kg falling through 22 m.
Friction may be neglected.
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
The figure shows a chamber containing 0.04 m3 of a gas. The initial pressure
which is supplied by weights on the piston is 200 kPa, keeping this pressure
constant, the chamber is heated until the volume of the gas is 0.10 m3 .
Considering the gas in the chamber as a system; (a) calculate the work done
by the system. While heating is going on, weights are removed from the
piston in such a way that the relation between pressure and volume is given
by the expression:(b) PV = k; (c) PV1.3 = k. Calculate the work done in both
cases if the initial conditions are the same and the initial and final volume
are 0.04 m3 and 0.1 m3 respectively. (d) Let the piston be fixed so that the
volume remains constant. For the same initial conditions, calculate the work
done if the heat is removed from the system and the pressure drops to 100
kPa.
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
During a process the volume of a unit weight system change from 5 ft 3 to 3
500
ft 3 . Calculate the work done for this process if P = + 0.060v 3 , where P
𝑉
3
is the pressure in psia and V is the volume in ft .
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
THE IDEAL GAS
IDEAL GAS EOS
Equations of state are mathematical equations relating P, V, T, and n for
a sample of substance.
- specifying the values for any three automatically determines the
fourth.

Ideal Gas Equation of State works best at high temperatures and low
pressures.

Ideal Gas obeys the ideal gas equation.


BOYLE’s LAW
CHARLE’S LAW
AVOGADRO’S LAW
AVOGADRO’S LAW
AVOGADRO’S LAW
MOLAR VOLUME
The molar volume v of any pure substance (not just gases) is just the volume
occupied by one mole of the substance:

•One mole of an ideal gas occupies 22.414 L at STP


•One mole of an ideal gas occupies 24.79 L at SATP
COMBINED GAS EQUATION
DALTON’S LAW
The total pressure P exerted by a mixture of ideal gases is the sum of the
pressures that would be exerted if each gas occupied the same volume alone.

Note that V is the total volume of the gas and n is the total moles of gas. PA, PB,
and PC are called the partial pressures of A,B, and C, respectively.
MOLE FRACTION (x)
The mole fraction xi of component i in a mixture is defined by:
PARTIAL PRESSURES
From Dalton’s Law,

In other words, the partial pressure of any given gas in a gas mixture is just
the mole fraction of that gas times the total pressure of the mixture:
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
PARTIAL MOLAR VOLUME
The partial volume Vi of any gas i in a mixture of gases is defined as the volume
that would be occupied by that gas if it were at the total pressure P of the
mixture
PROBLEMS
PROBLEMS
PROBLEMS
PROBLEMS

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