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Alexander Voice

24 November 2008
 Motivation for the development of CCS
technology
 Climate change
 Energy profile and outlook
 Public perception of CCS
 CCS technological overview
 CCS challenges and solutions
Muir Glacier, August, 1941
Muir Glacier, August, 2004
Source: Petit et. al. , Nature, 2000
Average global
temperatures have 6°
risen .75°C in the 5° 2°
past 100 years.
How much will the
rise in the next 100
years? 4°

Source: IPCC Report on
Climate Change, 2007
Source: Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, 2006
 CO2 concentration highest in last 650,000 years
 Warming of the climate system is unequivocal,
most of the global warming of the past half-
century is due to increases in greenhouse gases
 Global GHG emissions reduction challenge
 Stabilize CO2(e) concentrations at 450ppm (2.0 –
2.4°C temperature rise)
 Peak CO2 concentration before 2015
 Reduce 2050 emissions to 50-85% of 2000 emissions
 Reduce annual global emissions to 5Gt long term
MIT Carbon Sequestration
Initiative, Survey, 2006
Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions
from Electricity in 2007
Total = 10,539Mt Other
Fuel oil 1% H2
NG 9%
Global CO2 PS Emissions 2007
14%
Total = 13,375Mt
Petro.
Steel
Cement Chem.
5%
7% 3% Coal
Refineries
6% 76% (60% of total)
NG Sweet
Power
79%
210
Oil
180
150
Quad. BTU

Coal NG
120
90
Nuclear
60
30 Renewables
0
1990 2000 2010 2020 2030
Year
Source: EIA, International Energy Outlook, 2006
Source: IPCC Special Report on Carbon Capture and Sequestration
 Capture
 Power plants
 NG treatment


800GW Coal / 1600GW NG
 Oil refineries
Transportation
 Pipelines
 Ships 1Gt CO2 / 1BSCFD
 Sequestration
 Geological formations (underground)
 Ocean
 What is the scale of this project?
 Systems
 Post-combustion
 Pre-combustion
 Oxy-fuel
 Industrial processes (e.g. NG sweetening)

 Separation technologies
 Solvents – aqueous amines and salts
 Membranes – polymeric
 Solid sorbents – Lime, zeolite, activated carbon
 Cryogenic processes – Liquefaction/distillation
Clean gas CO2

Flue gas

ABS H STRP
X

Recirculating
(amine) solvent

Source: http://www.co2crc.com.au/
Clean gas CO2
Flue gas

ABS STRP
40°C HX 120°C

ENERGY

Recirculating
(amine) solvent
 CO2 + OH-C2H4-NH2 + B 
OH-C2H4-NH-CO2 + BH + Heat
 Absorption of CO2 by MEA at 40°C
 MEA recovery by desorption at 120°C
 Reboiler provides heat to desorber in the
form of steam from the boiler, reducing plant
output and efficiency
 Optimize loading, operating temperature,
minimize solvent losses
 Formation of heat stable salts 
precipitation to produce fertilizer
 Corrosion of equipment by amine solvent 
addition of Cu2+ or Va4+ to solution
 Degradation of solvent  addition of EDTA
or other inhibitor to solution
 Energy use  solvent storage / cycling; use of
salts, high pressure processes, new solvents
Source: http://www.co2crc.com.au/
Source: http://www.co2crc.com.au/
 2500km of pipeline / 50Mtyr-1 in western US
TODAY
 Use of existing infrastructure – require dry,
sweet gas to prevent corrosion
 Challenges are manageable, similar to
transport of hydrocarbons
 Big picture – Storage in oil reservoirs
(depleted and EOR), natural formations,
ocean storage
 Will it leak? Not likely – models suggest 99%
containment
 Existing reservoir data can be used to
estimate storage potential and address
(water) concerns
 No groundwater contamination (salt?)