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Discourse

- any linguistic unit that is functional in context


linguistic unit
- sound
- word
- group/phrase
- clause
- sentence
- paragraph
- book
Functional: meaningful, expressing meaning, having
meaning
Context: linguistic , social context
Discourse
- Hi
- Run
- Good morning
- Where to?
- Did you see the lady?
- Smoking is hazardous to health, welfare and
environment. Firstly, smoking is dangerous to
your health. Secondly, smoking burns your
money for nothing. ...
Context
Linguistic context: linguistic unit which
precedes or follows one in question.
1. The fruit is still green.
2. Ben is green; he is not supposed to do the
task.
3. The lady is wearing a green hat.
4. Green Revolution began in Europe.
LANGUAGE IN SOCIAL CONTEXT


IDEOLOGY

CULTURE

SITUATION

TEXT
LANGUAGE AND SOCIAL
CONTEXT

IDEOLOGY

CULTURE

SITUATION

SEMANTICS LEXICOGRAMMAR PHONOLOGY/GRAPHOLOGY


Logical-Philosophical and
Ethnographic-Descriptive
Aspect Logical- Ethnographic-
Philosophical Descriptive
1. Approah form—meaning, meaning—form
formal functional
phonology, meaning– phonology,
morphology, morphology, syntax
syntax—meaning
2. Assumption language as rules language as resources

3. Closely related to thought (neurology, social phenomenon


psychology) and context (sociology,
anthropology, social
context)
4. Linguistic studies closely related to logic closely related to social
aspect, culture and
anthropology
sentence text
idealization of data natural data

5. Method science, almost no semiotics, emphasizing


consideration to social the social context use
context of langauge use of language
6. Proponent Modistae, Bloomfield, Hjelmslev, Matesius,
Chomsky, Pike, … Firth, Halliday, Martin,

7. Tradition USA Europe
Difference in Description of
Langauge
Formal Functional
 my book (possession)
 my wife (attribution, position)
 my nose (attribution, part)
 modifier noun

Alice hit a cat. (material)


Alice likes cats. (mental)
Alice called the cat. (verbal)
Alice played a cat (in the drama). (relational)
Subject Verb Object

anak si Ani anak posyandu


anak si Ali anak susu Bendera
anak mas anak bawang
anak Medan
Systemic Functional Linguistics
Focus on the text
Text or discourse as linguistic unit which is functional in context
linguistic unit: sound, word, group/phrase, clause, paragraph,
book
functional: doing something, meaningful, full of meaning, having
meaning; function=meaning
context: anything which accompanies a text
1. Linguistic context (internal, cotext)
2. Social context (external)
a. Context of situation (register)
b. Context of culture (genre)
c. Ideology

Text and context form a semiotic relation, i. e. They are construal.


Notion of Functional
 language is structured in response to the needs of people as
social beings. Language use or text, which is everything that
is said or written, forms in context that is often referred to as
social context.
 human beings use language in order to fulfill three functions
in their lives, which is known as metafunctions, namely (1)
to represent, (2) to exchange and (3) to organize experience
(metafunctions)
 each element or unit of language in any level is explained by
reference to its function in the total linguistic system: clauses,
phrases, words, morphemes, and so on are interpreted as
functional with respect to the whole or a unit does something
or functions in a bigger unit above it in which it is an element
Metafuctions of Language
1. Ideational Function (draw, describe)
a. Experiential function (represent)
b. Logical function (relate)
2. Interpersonal Function (exchange)
3. Textual Function (organize)

Lexicogrammar: realization of the three


metafunctions in linguistic unit: wording
Grammatical Unit
1. CLAUSE
2. GROUP/PHRASE
3. WORD
4. MORPHEME

Group is a word which extends.


Aphrase is a caluse which contracts.
A sentence is not a grammatical unit; it is a
unit of written language.
A paragraph is a semantic unit.
Experiential Function
 CLAUSE as a unit of experience
 Three elements representing experience in
CLAUSE
 Process
 Participant(s)
 Circumstance(s)
 Process, Participant: Obligatory; Participant--
implicit; Circumstance: Optional
 He bought a book yesterday.
Process
 Nucleus of experience: atomic or solar
systems
 Attract or bind the Participant(s)
 Valency
1. avalent (rain, snow…)
2. monovalent (walk, go, sleep…)
3. bivalent (hit, see, meet…)
4. trivalent (send, buy, tell…)
5. quavalent (do, build, make…)
He made me a box for pleasure.
Circumstance is not governed by Process
Types of Process
Tyes of Process Semantic Syntactic
criteria Criteria

1. Material outside human V+ING


being run, walk, write,
physical do…

2. Mental inside human not in V+Ing


being
Types of Process (cont)

2. Mental psychological That-clause


one human (projection)
participant
reversible in
participant
-cognition -know, realize,
remember..
- affection -like, love, hate,
enjoy…
- perception -see, feel,
hear..
Types of Process (cont)
3. Relational Inside and N Λ BE Λ N
outside N Λ BE Λ ADJ
-identification N Λ BE Λ ADV
-attribution BE (is, are,
-possession was..) become,
sound, look,
play…
4. Behavioural Physiological smile, laugh,
sleep, bow,
die…
Types of Process (cont)

5. Verbal information that-clause


human and (projection)
non-human say, tell, ask,
participant order, instruct

6. Existential existence of There Λ BE …
entity There is a car
in the park.
BE, come, go…
Labels of Participants
Process Participant I Participant II

1.Material Actor Goal


2.Mental Senser Phenomenon
3.Relational
a.Identification Token Value
b.Attribution Carrier Attribute
c.Possession Possessor Possessed
Labels of Participants
(cont)
4. Behavioural Behaver --
5. Verbal Sayer Verbiage
6. Existential -- Existent
Other Participant Functions
Participant III
1. Beneficiary
a. Material : Recipient (to), Client (for)
b. Verbal : Receiver
c. Relational: Beneficiary
Beneficiary: participant to whom/which or for whom/which the process +
Participant II is addressed or said to take place
- He sent me a letter. (Beneficiary: Recipient)
- He bought me a book. (Beneficiary: Client)
- He told us a story. (Beneficiary: Receiver)
- Ben played Hamlet for the audience. (Beneficiary)
2. Range
a. Range: the element (participant) that specifies the range or scope of the
process.
- She sang a song (Range: Material)
- John smoked cigars (Range: Material)
- She smiled a nice smile (Range: Behavioural)
- She enjoyed the scenery (Range: Mental)
- John Played the piano (Material)
Other Participant Functions
(cont)
b. Range as another name for the process
- She had a bath (bathed)
- We do some work (work)
- I will take a look (look)
- She gave me a smile (smiled)
- We do a little dance (dance)
- Kami mengadakan pertemuan (bertemu)
- Mereka membuat perencanaan (berencana)
Circumstance
Types Subcategory Probe Example

1. Extent temporal for how For three


long? hours
every two
weeks
spatial how far? for six
miles
Circumstance (cont)
2. Location temporal when? yesterday
Last week
spatial where? here
in the room
3. Manner -- how? quickly
very much
4. Cause -- why? because of
the rain
for better
result
Circumstance (cont)
5. in what in the event
Contingency circumstan of rain
ces? in the
absence of
proof
6. Role what as? as a
concerned
parent
as an
acting
manager
Circumstance (cont)
7. Matter what about this
about? about
economics
8.
Accompani together with(out)
ment with? friends
instead of
the man
9. Angle says who? according
to weather
forecast
Analisis
Adik memukul kucing kemarin.
Pelaku Proses: Material Gol Sirkumstan:
Lokasi:
Waktu

Adik melihat kucing kemarin.


Pengindera Proses: Mental Fenomenon Sirkumstan:
Lokasi:
Waktu
Adik memanggil kucing
buku saya anak si Ani
istri saya anak si Ali
mata saya anak Medan
ANALYSIS OF TEXT
The room was large and furniture was placed in
the middle. As I was walking into another room,
where she was lying, I saw a host of flowers by
the window. The flowers reminded me of the park
where we usually sat. Once we went there. She
kissed me and said, ”Darling, are you worried?”,
and after a pause of hesitation continued, “There
is nothing to worry.” She smiled and I said, ‘Let
me pick a red rose for you”. Now there is no
more smile on the stiff lips and the flower is gone.
It is just a memory and I will never see her again.
CLAUSES
1. the room was large
2. and furniture was placed in the middle
3. as I was walking into another room
4. where she was lying
5. I saw a host of flowers by the window
6. the flowers reminded me of the park
7. where we usually sat
8. once we went there
9. she kissed me
10.and said
Clauses
11. ”Darling, are you worried?”
12. and after a pause of hesitation continued
13. “There is nothing
14. to worry.”
15. she smiled
16. and I said
17. ‘Let me pick a red rose for you”
18. now there is no more smile on the stiff lips
19. and the flower is gone
20. it is just a memory
21. and I will never see her again.
Experiential Function
(Process)
No. Types of Process Number %
1. Material 7 33.3
2. Mental 5 23.8
3. Relational 3 14.3
4. Behavioural 1 4.8
5. Verbal 3 14.3
6. Existential 2 9.5
Total 21 100
Experiential Function
(Circumstance)
No. Types of Circumstance Number %
1. Location 7 58.4
2. Extent 1 8.3
3. Manner 3 25
4. Accompaniment 0 0
5. Cause 0 0
6. Contingency 0 0
7. Role 0 0
8. Matter 1 8.3
9. Angle 0 0
Total 12 100
References

Halliday, M. A. K. 2004. An` Introduction to


Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold.
Martin, J. R. 2002. English Text: System and
Structure. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Eggins, S. 2004. An Introduction to Systemic
Functional Linguistics. London: Falmer.
Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. 2004. English
Carthography. Sydney: Sydney University Press.