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MODULE 4: LESSON 2

PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF


By:
Corre, Joydie
Dauz, Genesea
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF
OBJECTIVES:
• DEFINE PERSONALITY AND SELF
• DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENT IDEAS ON THE ORIGIN AND
DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELF
• EXAMINE THE DIFFERENT CONCEPTS WITH REGARD TO
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT;
• DISCUSS CLEARLY THE COGNITIVE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL
STAGES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

PERSONALITY
MCSHANE & VON GLINOW, 2010
- PERSONALITY IS THE RELATIVELY ENDURING
PATTERN OF THOUGHTS, EMOTIONS, AND
BEHAVIOURS THAT CHARACTERIZE A PERSON, ALONG
WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES BEHIND THOSE
CHARACTERISTICS.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

PERSONALITY
LARSEN & BUSS, 2010
- PERSONALITY IS THE SET OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
TRAITS AND MECHANISM WITHIN THE INDIVIDUAL
THAT ARE ORGANIZED AND RELATIVELY ENDURING
AND THAT INFLUENCE HIS/HER INTERACTIONS WITH,
AND ADAPTATIONS TO THE INTRAPSYCHIC, PHYSICAL,
AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

PERSONALITY
BRINKERHOFF, 1988
- PERSONALITY AS THE UNIQUE ATTRIBUTES AND
ABILITIES OF THE INDIVIDUAL.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

PERSONALITY
BARNOW, 1983
- PERSONALITY AS A MORE OR LESS ENDURING
ORGANIZATION OF FORCES WITHIN THE
INDIVIDUAL, ASSOCIATED WITH A COMPLEX OF
FAIRLY CONSISTENT ATTITUDES, VALUES, AND
MODES OF PERCEPTION, WHICH ACCOUNT, IN PART,
FOR THE INDIVIDUAL’S CONSISTENCY OF
BEHAVIOUR.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

PERSONALITY
DEWEY AND HUMBER, 1966
- PERSONALITY AS THE WAY BY WHICH THE
INDIVIDUAL IS INTERRELATED THROUGH IDEAS,
ACTIONS, AND ATTITUDES TO THE MANY NON-
HUMAN ASPECTS OF HIS/HER ENVIRONMENT AND
BIOLOGICAL HERITAGE.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

PERSONALITY
- AS CONSISTENT IN SPITE OF INTERNAL CONFLICTS OR
SEEMING INCONSISTENCIES DUE TO SITUATIONAL
DEMANDS OF CERTAIN STATUSES AND ROLES.
- DEFINED AS THE CHARACTERISTIC SET
OF BEHAVIORS, COGNITIONS, AND EMOTIONAL PATTERNS
THAT EVOLVE FROM BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL
FACTORS.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
HEREDITY
- THE DETERMINANT OF THE BIOLOGICAL MAKE-UP
OF A PERSON.
- IT PROVIDES THE RAW MATERIALS OR STUFF
WHICH PERSONALITY IS FORMED.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
HEREDITY
- BIOLOGICAL INHERITANCES TRANSFERRED FROM PARENTS TO
OFFSPRING INCLUDES:
• PHYSICAL FEATURES
• PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESS
• REFLEXES
• URGES
• CAPACITY
• INTELLIGENCE
• TRAITS
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
ENVIRONMENT
- MOLDER OF PERSONALITY.
• NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
• GEOGRAPHY AND BIOLOGY
• CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT
• CUSTOMS, TRADITION, AND TECHNOLOGY
• SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
PERSONAL EXPERIENCE
- CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES ARE KNOWN TO
INFLUENCE PERSONALITY PREDISPOSITION.
- DEATH IN THE FAMILY
- EXPERIENCE LOVE AND AFFECTION
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


A. FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
- PROGRESSION IN THE SATISFACTION OF BASIC
HUMAN NEEDS. – PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES (THEY
(PEOPLE) SEXUAL IN NATURE AND PROGRESSED
FROM IMPULSES OF THE “ID”)
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


A. FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
5 PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
1. ORAL STAGE (BIRTH TO 1 YEAR)
- THE INFANT SEEK SATISFACTION THROUGH STIMULATION
TO THE MOUTH BY SUCKING, BITING, AND CHEWING.
- IF ORAL GRATIFICATION IS NOT MET  ORAL FIXATION
(SMOKING HABIT, TALKATIVENESS, DEPENDENCE, AND
ETC.)
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


A. FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
2. ANAL STAGE (1-3 YEARS)
- PERSONALITY DEV’T IN TOILET TRAINING.
- INFANTS ACHIEVES SATISFACTION FROM
WITHHOLDING OR EXPELLING OF FECES
- UNFULFILLED ANAL STAGE  ANAL FIXATION
(EXCESSIVE NEATNESS, PUNCTUALITY, STINGINESS
AND POSSESSIVENESS )
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


A. FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
3. PHALLIC STAGE (4-5 YEARS)
- GREATEST SOURCE OF PLEASURE COMES FROM THE SEX
ORGAN.
- SON, AFFECTION TO THE MOTHER (OEDIPAL STAGE);
DAUGHTER, AFFECTION TO THE FATHER (ELECTRA STAGE)
- FAILURE TO RESOLVE THIS ATGE  PERSONALITY PROBLEMS
(INABILITY TO FUNCTION IN AN ADULT SEXUAL ROLE)
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


A. FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
4. LATENCY STAGE (5 YEARS TO ADOLESCENCE)
- CHILDREN TURN THEIR ATTENTION TO THE
SURROUNDING WORLD (INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL
DEVELOPMENT)
- SEXUAL URGINGS BECOME DORMANT AND NO
DYNAMIC CONFLICT OR BASIC PERSONALITY
CHANGES OCCUR.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


A. FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
5. GENITAL STAGE (ADOLESCENCE AND BEYOND)
- THE SEXUAL IMPULSES BECOME ACTIVE AGAIN AND
THE INDIVIDUAL FOCUSES ON THE OPPOSITE SEX,
LOOKS AROUND FOR A POTENTIAL MARRIAGE
PARTNER AND PREPARES FOR MARRIAGE AND ADULT
RESPONSIBILITIES.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


B. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STUDIES
8 STAGES OF THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
1. BASIC TRUST VERSUS MISTRUST
- THE INFANT IS HIGHLY DEPENDED ON THE MOTHER FOR
CARE. THIS ADULT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
NURTURANCE F THE INFANT AND SOCIAL INTERACTION
SUCH AS TALKING, SINGING, PLAYING, AND CUDDLING
BETWEEN THE ADULT INFANT, WHICH DETERMINE THE
INFANT’S LATER ATTITUDE.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


B. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STUDIES
8 STAGES OF THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
2. AUTONOMY VERSUS SHAME AND DOUBT
- THIS STAGE OCCURS AT THE AGE OF TWO (2) OR
THREE (3) WHEN CHILDREN LEARNING TO WALK,
TALK, EXPLORE, AND ACT INDEPENDENTLY.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


B. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STUDIES
8 STAGES OF THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
3. INITIATIVE VERSUS GUILT
- THIS STAGE OCCURS BETWEEN THE AGES OF FOUR (4)
AND FIVE (5).
- CHILDREN BROADEN THEIR SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT TO
INCLUDE SCHOOL FRIENDS, RELATIVES AND
NEIGHBOUR.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


B. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STUDIES
8 STAGES OF THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
4. INDUSTRY VERSUS INFERIORITY
- THIS STAGE OCCURS BETWEEN THE AGES OF SIX (6)
AND ELEVEN (11).
- THE BEHAVIOUR OF CHILDREN IS DOMINATED BY
INTELLECTUAL CURIOSITY AND PERFORMANCE.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


B. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STUDIES
8 STAGES OF THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
5. IDENTITY VERSUS ROLE CONFUSION
- THIS STAGE OCCUR DURING ADOLESCENCE PERIOD.
- ADOLESCENCE FACE A CRISIS IN FINDING THEIR
PLACE IN SOCIETY (WORRY ABOUT THEIR FUTURE)
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


B. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STUDIES
8 STAGES OF THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
6. INTIMACY VERSUS ISOLATION
- OCCURS IN YOUNG ADULTHOOD (18-35 YRS. OLD)
- INDIVIDUAL ARE ABLE TO FORM CLOSE CONTACTS
AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHERS TO SHARE
THEMSELVES WITH OTHERS.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


B. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STUDIES
8 STAGES OF THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
7. GENERATIVITY VERSUS SELF-ABSORPTION AND
STAGNATION
- OCCURS IN MIDDLE AGE (35-55 YRS. OLD)
- GENERATIVITY IS THE CONCERN FOR ESTABLISHING
AND GUIDING THE NEXT GENERATION.
- IT INVOLVES THE ABILITY TO LOOK BEYOND SELF, AND
TO BE CONCERNED ABOUT OTHERS.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


B. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STUDIES
8 STAGES OF THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
8. INTEGRITY VERSUS DESPAIR
- OCCURS IN OLD AGE (55 YRS. OLD AND ABOVE)
- TIME FOR REFLECTION
- INTEGRITY (BEING COMPLETE) AND DESPAIR
(DISAPPOINTMENTS AND FAILURES)
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


C. JEAN PIAGET’S STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
STAGES OF THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
1. SENSORY STAGE (FROM BIRTH TO 18 MONTHS OF AGE)
- INFANTS ARE PRIMARILY CONCERNED WITH THEIR OWN
SENSE AND MOTOR ACTIVITIES.
- THEY DO NOT SEE OBJECTS OR DIFFERENT FROM THEM.
- (18 MONTHS) – MOVE THEIR ARMS TO MOVE TOYS OR TO
BRING A RATTLE TO THEIR MOUTH. (ABILITY TO DIRECT
MANIPULATION OF OBJECTS)
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


C. JEAN PIAGET’S STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
STAGES OF THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
2. PRE-OPERATIONAL (FROM ABOUT 18 MONTHS TO 7 YEARS OF AGE)
- CHILDREN HAVE TOTAL OBJECT PERMANENCE AND ARE LEARNING TO
USE LANGUAGE TO COMMUNICATE WITH OTHERS.
- IMITATE ACTIONS OF OTHERS.
- HIGHLY EGOCENTRIC (DON’T MAKE DISTINCTION TO OTHERS
FEELING AND THOUGHTS)
- INCAPABLE OF PERFORMING SIMPLE INTELLECTUAL OPERATIONS.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
C. JEAN PIAGET’S STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
STAGES OF THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
3. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE (FROM ABOUT 7 TO 11
YEARS OF AGE)
- THEY THINK AND TALK IN TERMS OF CONCRETE IMAGES,
EVENTS, AND REAL-LIFE SITUATION.
- CHILDREN CAN’T GENERALIZE BEYOND THEIR OWN ACTUAL
EXPERIENCE.
- THEY BEGIN TO REALIZE OTHER’S OPINION AND CAN
EFFECTIVELY PARTICIPATE IN ORGANIZED GAMES AND SOCIAL
RELATIONSHIPS.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


C. JEAN PIAGET’S STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
STAGES OF THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
4. FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE (BEGINS WITH THE
ONSET OF ADOLESCENCE AT ABOUT AGE OF 11)
- CHILDREN BEGIN TO THINK GENERAL PRINCIPLES,
ABSTRACT CONCEPTS, AND THEORIES.
- THEY CAN APPROACH PROBLEM WITH SEVERAL
SOLUTIONS BY DISCUSSION AND REASONING.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


C. JEAN PIAGET’S STAGE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

THE PROCESS OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IS


UNIVERSAL. THIS DEVELOPMENT IS BOTH
PSYCHOLOGICALLY AND SOCIALLY PRESCRIBED.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


D. CHARLES HORTON COOLEY’S CONCEPT OF THE
“LOOKING-GLASS SELF”
ACCORDING TO THE COOLEY, THERE ARE THREES STEPS IN THE
FORMATION OF THE LOOKING-GLASS SELF:
1. WE IMAGINE HOW WE APPEAR TO OTHERS.
2. WE IMAGINE HOE OTHERS JUDGE OUR APPEARANCE.
3. WE DEVELOP FEELINGS ABOUT AND RESPONSES TO
THESE JUDGEMENTS.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


E. GEORGE MEAD’S SELF-DEVELOPMENT STAGE
3 STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELF:
1. PREPARATORY STAGE
- CHILDREN IMITATE THE BEHAVIOUR OF OTHERS IN THE
ENVIRONMENT.
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


E. GEORGE MEAD’S SELF-DEVELOPMENT STAGE
3 STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELF:
2. PLAY STAGE
- CHILDREN ASSUME OR PLAY SEVERAL ROLES
- IMITATE ROLES OF THE “SIGNIFICANT OTHERS”
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL SELF

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


E. GEORGE MEAD’S SELF-DEVELOPMENT STAGE
3 STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELF:
3. GAME STAGE
- THEY ARE ABLE TO TAKE THE ROLE OR ATTITUDE OF
WHAT MEAD CALLED THE “GENERALIZED OTHERS”-
THE ATTITUDE OF THE COMMUNITY OR ORGANIZED
SOCIAL GROUP.