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Its all about energy

• All the life processes use energy,the body gets
its energy from a chemical reaction which
takes place in the cells.This chemical reaction
is called Respiration.
Respiration is a bit like burning.The fuel comes
from the carbohydrates & fats in the food we
eat.During digestion these are broken down
into tiny molecules such as glucose.
The oxygen needed to ‘burn’ glucose comes
from the lungs.
• Respiration can be written as this word
Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide +
water + Energy
This means when body cells are producing
energy they
Use up oxygen
Produce carbon dioxide and water
• So to keep producing energy, the body needs:
A supply of oxygen
To get rid of carbon dioxide(which could
poison it)
That is where breathing comes in.You breath
in (inhale) fresh air which contains the
oxygen.You get rid of the carbon dioxide when
you breath out (exhale).
This exhaled air also contains water vapours.
% of gases in the inhaled/exhaled air
Respiration in cells
• Respiration is often confused with breathing.
Breathing:It is simply a way of exchanging
gases between the lungs & the surrounding
air.(taking in of oxygen & getting rid of carbon
Respiration:It takes place in the cells of the
body tissues.It is a process by which energy is
released during the chemical breakdown of
• Respiration occurs in
every living cell in tiny
rod shaped structures in
the cell cytoplasm called
Muscle cells have many
mitochondria because
they have to release
large amounts of energy
quickly for movements.
Storing energy
• The energy released
during respiration is
needed for many
things.Our bodies can
store this energy . For
long term storage the
body uses fat layer
under the skin,but this
can’t be broken down
ATP Formation
• Cells must have a way
of storing energy for
instant release.They do
this by using a chemical
called ATP.(adenosine
ATP is a complex
molecule that contains
3 phosphates.The
chemical bond holding
the 2nd & 3rd phosphate
is a high energy bond.
• When this bond is
broken,a new molecule
diphosphate) is formed
& energy is released.
ATP is therefore called a
short – term energy
store.When the body
has excess energy ,ADP
molecule combines
with another phosphate
to make ATP.
Did you know?

• The energy released from a molecule of ATP is

often enough to supply the energy needs of a
single chemical reaction in body.
Anaerobic respiration(in animals)
• Most plants & animals
respire aerobically(with
sometimes an animal
breathing rate can’t get
oxygen to the cells quickly
enough.The animal
doesn’t die,because
respiration can also take
place without oxygen
called Anaerobic
• Walking is an aerobic exercise because the
body gets enough oxygen to supply all the
energy needed.
Running fast is an anaerobic exercise.No
matter how fast a person breathes or their
heart beats,the body can’t get enough oxygen
for aerobic respiration.This time anaerobic
respiration supplies the needed
energy.Unfortunately, there is a time limit on
anaerobic exercise.
How does anaerobic respiration
• Instead of being broken down completely into
carbon dioxide & water,glucose breaks down
into Lactic acid.Lactic acid is a sort of halfway
stage between glucose & carbondioxide &
Anaerobic respiration is not the best way to
get energy from glucose,as glucose is not
completely broken down & much less energy
is produced.However anaerobic respiration is
very useful when energy is needed in a hurry.
Did you know?

• The fitter you are, the quicker you recover

after vigorous exercise.
This is called your recovery time.
Energy without oxygen : in plants

• Plants cells, like animal

cells,can respire
anaerobically if they
need to.However,plants
don’t produce lactic
acid.They make alcohol
& carbon dioxide
• The roots of plants living in waterlogged soil
have to use anaerobic respiration,otherwise
the plant dies.However,the plant must return
to aerobic respiration before the level of
alcohol in the plant becomes too high to kill
the plant.
Yeast: Yeast is a microscopic fungus which
can respire aerocically or anaerobically
depending on oxygen levels.

• When little oxygen is present, yeast breaks

down glucose into Ethanol & carbon dioxide
with the release of energy, a process known
as Fermentation.
If yeast is mixed with glucose & water & put
in a warm place it will begin to ferment.
Experiment to show fermentation
• A simple experiment showing Fermentation is
shown in this diagram.
As the yeast breaks down the glucose to
release energy,carbon dioxide gas is
produced.This gas turns the calcium hydroxide
(limewater )milky.
Did you know?

Fermentation has been used for hundreds of

years for baking or brewing.
In baking the carbon dioxide produced makes
the bread dough rise.

• Breathing is simply a way of exchanging

gases between the lungs & the surrounding
• Breathing takes place in
the lungs & is simply a
way of getting oxygen
into the body &
carbondioxide out of
it.Blood carries oxygen
from the lungs to the
cells & carbondioxide
from the cells back to
the lungs.
Breathing in & breathing out
Did you know?

Fermentation has been used for hundreds of

years for baking or brewing.
In baking the carbon dioxide produced makes
the bread dough rise.
The structure of the lungs
Lungs in more detail
• The lungs are in the chest cavity or
thorax.They are like two pink sponges because
they contain lots of air sacs & blood.The air
passages are lined with two types of cells. One
type is covered with tiny hair cells called cilia.
The other produces a sticky liquid called
mucus. Dust particles & bacteria stick to the
mucus.The cilia beat to carry the mucus upto
the back of the mouth where it is swallowed.
Did you know?

• The surface area of all the sacs put together is

about the same size as a tennis court.
You either swallow or cough up mucus
containing dirt & bacteria.