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 Biology is the branch of science which deals with

the study of living objects and their life processes

 It covers all aspect of the study of living creatures

like growth, structure, ecology, economics
importance, external form, organization, internal
structure etc.

 The term biology is derived from the Greek word

Bios means “life” and Logia means “the study
Question Arises: What is life
What is living?

How can you differentiate between living

and non-living since we define biology as
the science which deals with the study of
living objects
 The term Biology is often replaced by the
term “Life Science or Biological Science”

 The term biology was coined by Jean-

Baptiste Lamarck

 Aristotle is known as the “Father Of

 Life is a set of characteristics which
differentiate organisms from non-living

 These set of characteristics include

reproduction, growth, homeostasis,
movement, nutrition, respiration among

 For a thing to be called a living thing, there

must be a set of these characteristics
 A branch of biology which
deals with the scientific study
of different aspects plants
and plant-like organisms
which include algae, fungi,
lichens, mosses, ferns,
conifer, and flowering plants

 The ancient Greek

Theophrastus (371-286
B.C.E.) is known as the
“Father/Founder Of
 Deals with the scientific study of
all living organisms that are too
small to be visible to the naked
 Including bacteria, archaea,
viruses, fungi, prions, protozoa
and algae, collectively known as
 Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek
is known as the “Father Of
Branches Of Biology
1. Morphology 8. Ecology
2. Anatomy 9. Embryology
3. Histology 10. Genetics
4. Cytology 11. Paleontology
5. Cell Biology 12. Taxonomy
6. Molecular Biology 13. Evolution
7. Physiology 14. Pathology
 Morphology
It is the study of external form, size, shape,
color, external structure, and relative position
of living organisms

 Anatomy
It is the study of internal structure which can
be observed with unaided eye after dissection

 Physiology
It is the study of different types of body
functions and processes or the functional
activities of a living organism
 Cytology
It is the study of form and structure as well as
the function of cells including the behavior of
nucleus and other organelles

 Histology
It is the study of tissue organization and
structure as observed through light microscope

 Taxonomy
It is the science of identification,
nomenclature and classification of organisms
 Embryology
It is the study of fertilization, growth, division
and differentiation of zygote into embryo or
early development of living beings before the
attainment of the structure and size of the

 Genetics
It is the study of inheritance of characters or
heredity and variations. Heredity is the study of
expression and transmission of traits from
parents to offspring
 Ecology
It is the study of living organisms is relation to
other organism and their environment

 Evolution
It studies the origin of life as well as new types
of organism to the previous ones by
modifications involving genetic changes and

 Pathology
It is a branch of biology which studies diseases
in a plant and animals and their treatments
 Paleontology
It deals with the study of fossils or remains and
impressions of past organisms present in the rocks
of different ages

 Molecular Biology
It is the study of nature, physicochemical
organization, synthesis working and interaction of
bio-molecules that bring about and control various
activities of the protoplasm

 Cell Biology
It is the study of morphological, organizational,
biochemical, physiological, genetic,
developmental, pathological and evolutionary
aspects of cell and its components
Applied Branches Of Biology
 The applied branch of biology is divided
into two main streams:

• Applied Botany
• Applied Zoology
Applied Botany
 Some important branches of applied
botany are;

1. Agriculture
2. Horticulture
3. Pharmacognosy
4. Forestry
Applied Zoology
 Some important branches of applied
zoology are;

1. Sericulture
2. Apiculture
3. Lac culture
4. Poultry
5. Pisciculture
6. Animal Husbandry
Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605)
 Italian naturalist and
physician. Together
with Conrad Gesner, he
led the Renaissance
movement that put a
new emphasis on the
study of the nature
George Beadle (1909-1975)
 American geneticist. By means
of x-ray irradiation of the mold
Neurospora crassa and screening
of the resulting mutants, Beadle
showed, with Edward Tatum,
that mutations induced in genes
corresponded to alterations in
specific enzymes. This finding
led to the acceptance of the one
gene/one enzyme hypothesis.
Shared with Tatum half the 1958
Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Louis Agassiz (1807-1873)
 Swiss-born American
zoologist, geologist, and
paleontologist, with a
special expertise in
ichthyology. Founder and
director of Harvard's
Museum of Comparative
Zoology, one of the most
famous scientists of his day
Erwin Chargaff (1905-2002)
 Austro-Hungarian-born
American biochemist
whose experiments
provided crucial
information allowing
Watson, Crick, and
Wilkins to elucidate the
double-helix structure of
Georges Cuvier (1769-1832)
 French naturalist and
zoologist. Founder of the
fields of vertebrate
paleontology and
comparative anatomy. One
of the most prolific authors
of scientific literature in the
history of biology