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Foundations of Physics from Galileo and Newton to Modern Ideas of Synergy

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Foundations of Physics from Galileo and Newton to Modern Ideas of Synergy

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Ida Acobian

Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Law,

Yerevan, Armenia

Foundations of Modern Science

Galileo and the Concept of Inertia

Perhaps Galileo's greatest contribution to physics was his formulation of the concept of inertia: an

object in a state of motion possesses an ``inertia'' that causes it to remain in that state of motion

unless an external force acts on it. The idea of inertial motion became a cornerstone

of Newton's laws of motion.

1564 - 1642

Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external

force is applied to it.

and Newton starts from The Law. This is First Law of Newton, Law of Inertia. Newton

calls it postulate.

3. Galilieo notices that inertial systems do not exist in Nature since any physical body is

under action of many forces, which could be eliminated only mentally.

• Strictly speaking Modern Science begins with Logic, or with Science about Laws of

Thought: A ≡ A, A is the object lacking in inner activity. Newton

1643 - 1727

• We should remember that Physics of Aristotle was based on the “principle of perfection

of circular motion” as said Galileo.

• It is very important to note that Ancient perception was based not on the Identity law, but

on the law of analogies of Hermes Trismegistus.

Emerald Tablet of Hermes Trismegistus

certain.

2. What is below is like that which is above,

and what is above is like that which is

below, to accomplish the miracle of the

one thing.

Symmetry in Logic

• Aristotle’s Law of Identity; A ≡ A This is first simplest definition of

symmetry.

А А

Aristotle

384 - 322 BC

• This law of formal Logic or law of consistency in thinking underlies all

mathematical science in its classical part. In due course this law

revealed tendency to “localization” in specified intervals of abstraction.

thinking is asymmetric, i.e. it should consist of only “right” or true

propositions and nowhere be “left” or false ones.

Rotation as Equilibrium

indistinguishable. And they define absolute equilibrium, measure

and place of things.

Symmetry in Mathematics

• Mathematics is the kingdom of Symmetry.

• The principle of Symmetry lies in the foundations of Mathematics as

well as of Logic .

• But Symmetry in Mathematics is not absolute. Since Pythagoras

there is also primordial incommensurability or Asymmetry. In

Geometry side and diagonal of square; circuit and diagonal of circle

are incommensurate. That is the problem of incommensurability of

ideas of discreteness and continuity at conceptual level.

• During its history Mathematics gone through crisis three times.

a) First crisis is connected with Zenon’s Paradox.

b) Second crisis is the problem of infinity.

c) Third one is the Paradox of Cantor’s set theory. This crisis has

lead to the issue of the challenge of substantiation and creation of

Metamathematics.

• The Symmetry is the principle unifying “the tower of Babel” of

modern Mathematics. Pythagoras

• At the same time if we could get rid of paradoxes Mathematics

would become into grand tautology. 569 - 475 BC

Method of Transitions

• To reveal origins and foundations of Physics we perform transitions into the

fields of Logic and Mathematics.

• Nicolaus Copernicus was first to apply Method of Transitions at translation

of reference frame from geocentric to heliocentric one.

• The method of Copernicus for us will be not like revolutionary deed made

once but rather working tool at transitions from Physics to Logic and

Mathematics, from Physics to History of New Science, from Physics to

Philosophy and Biology, etc..

• The goal of the method of transitions to see whole picture of Physics

development from the very beginning to nowadays.

Nicolaus Copernicus

1473-1543

science.

• Golden rule of the method of transitions is to remember that measure or

metrics of any system contains in itself and can’t be introduced or imposed

from outside.

• This is only method allowing to investigate Nature without its fragmentation.

Therefore Method of Transitions could be called as Method of Freedom in

Cognition.

Wolfgang Goethe

1749-1832

Symmetry in Physics

• Symmetry has entered in Science and later in mathematical natural science due to

Group Theory of Evarist Galois. He introduced Group conception in Mathematics and

proposed to classify algebraic equations by their groups of symmetry.

• Symmetry opens new page in Natural Science by creating a basis for the integration of

all fragmented parts of scientific knowledge and merging them into one whole “picture

of the world”.

• We figured out that Symmetry is principle, language and method lying in the basis of

Logic and Mathematics.

• But at the same time we detect that Symmetry is not absolute.

Evarist Galois

1811 - 1832

• To construct physical theory it is insufficient to know only law but initial or boundary

conditions are also necessary.

• Physical theory from one is side symmetries or regularities of physical laws, from

another side is irregularities, randomness, i.e. asymmetries of real physical world taken

out of brackets into the field of initial or boundary conditions.

• Choice of initial conditions is rather arbitrary since it’s out of any physical theory.

• “How artificial wouldn’t seem such a fragmentation of world’s structure, abstraction lying

in the basis of such fragmentation belongs to the number of most fruitful ideas

advanced by human reason. Namely that allowed to create natural sciences.”

E. Wigner

• But we should not forget that this abstraction, which is the reason of accuracy and

Eugene Wigner

strictness in mathematical thinking has its limits, determined by Physics of null 1902 - 1995

organization (expression of Albert Ducrocq). This abstraction leads Physics either into

over-complications or paradoxes when it goes out of that limits.

1. “Demon of Laplace” is able to comprehend by glance “evolution” of the

world and restore the past and predict the future with almost absolute

accuracy by given initial conditions. This is the world of classical Physics,

determinism and necessity.

“randomnicities” in the form of fluctuations, i.e. a little bit of asymmetry in

body of physical theory, it becomes clear that development of Laplace’s

world from the past to the future completely reversible in any point is rather Pierre-Simon Laplace

“caricature of evolution” (I. Prigogine). 1749 - 1827

• Law of degradation of energy is the only law in Physics talking about

evolution of the system, about unidirectionality and irreversibility of its

development.

aid of fluctuation hypothesis. According to that hypothesis irreversibilty of

entropy increase has probability character and the universe has to be in

thermodynamical equilibrium or Warmetod.

• Toward this end new statistical thermodynamics was developed based on

mathematical theory of probabilities.

• This is very important landmark in the history of Physics not only from point

of view of creation of Statistical Physics but also because asymmetry is not

carried out into the field of initial conditions anymore but it is inside of Ludwig Boltzmann

theory, though in form of improbable fluctuations.

1844 -1906

The Fall of Parity

• Irreversibility of time, or entropy assigning Time’s Arrow, was driven away from

Physics in every possible way since times of Clausius and Boltzmann. Time’s

Asymmetry took its fitting place only after the discovery of violation of Parity

conservation in weak interactions.

• Conservation laws seeming such an unshakable framework for physics after Chen Ning Yang

this event got their limits, got localized. 1926

absence of order all of a sudden became a first principle of physical science or

principle of structure formation.

• Classical Physics before Parity Fall is symmetrical or Physics of null

organzization (Albert Ducrocq).

• Physics in its urge to describe real world broaden its foundations and along

Tsung-Dao Lee

with Symmetry principle has also “principle of Spontaneous Symmetry 1922

Breaking”.

• But how so negative principle as violation of Symmetry, such a vacancy in

bagel could lie in foundations of Physics? Physics doesn’t deal with principle of

Asymmetry. Term Asymmetry is more appropriate in Biology.

• The situation in Physics after the Fall of Parity in weak interactions should be

called as crisis of foundations.

• To resolve this crisis it is necessary to make a transition into the origins of

foundations. Chien-Shiung Wu

1912 - 1997

"Philosophy is written in this grand book -- I mean the universe --

which stands continually open to our gaze; but it cannot be

understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language

and interpret the characters in which it is written. It is written in

the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles,

circles, and other geometric figures. Without these it is

humanly impossible to understand a single word of it."

Leonardo da

Vinci

During five centuries history of Science since times of Leonardo da

1452-1519

Vinci we have sufficiently studied “language and characters” of grand

book of the universe and now we are beginning to recognize, that

mathematical language and physical writings are only its first part,

“Book of the Dead”, which has led us into new labyrinth of physics of

elementary particles and problem of life and put in front of choice

either new science being able to become “Book of the Alive” or

disgraceful self-destruction in chasm between two these “Books”.

proper science as there is mathematics therein" Immanuel Kant

1724-1804

• Time is forgotten dimension.

• Prigogine experienced a shock in front of “glaring contradiction” in scientific

approach to the problem of time, arising from second law of thermodynamics

when he was still a student.

• Prigogine has intended to solve the contradiction between two evolutionary

theories:

d) Darwin theory, discussing about tendency of systems toward complication.

e) Second law of thermodynamics, talking about degradation and destruction of Ilya Prigogine

any given structure. 1917 - 2003

• Search for one physical law or, quest of “universal criterion of evolution”,

naturally including in itself both directions of evolution has lead to better

understanding of the fact that we need completely new scientific approach.

• Prigogine is talking about revolution in physics, much more radical than all

ones which took place since times of ancient Greek.

• Starting from the “arrow of time” of law of energy degradation Prigogine and

coworkers come to new concept of time, and space with time like structure.

• Foundations of physics undergo changes. Symmetric space-time of traditional

science, where time is space like, gives way to new concept of irreversible

time and space with time like structure.

• This concept makes it possible to describe evolution and self-organization.

• However operator of asymmetric irreversible time imposed on symmetric

dynamical physical picture lead to the new concept of complexity in physics.

Chemistry

Biology

Physics

Mathematics

Psychology

Philosophy

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