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Machine Operation and Guarding

Rina Jane D. Buñi

Principles in Machine Guarding
• Point of Operation • Enclosures
• Zero Mechanical State • Fencing
(ZMS) • Safety by Positon or
• Power off Location
• Power-locked off • In going (in-running)
• Guarding • Safety by Construction
• A Machine Guard
Ergonomics of Machine Guarding
• As explained by W.T. Singleton in ILO Encyclopaedia, literal meaning of
‘ergonomics’ is the study, measurement and organisation of work. It is
concerned with making purposeful human activities more effective.
• As explained by K. Kogi, a Regional Advisor to ILO, ergonomics is a useful
tool for fitting work to people, not people to work.
• As a science, ergonomics studies anatomy, physiology and psychology.
– Anatomy includes anthropometry and biomechanics.
– Physiology includes work physiology & environmental physiology.
– Psychology the science or study of the mind and behavior.
Types of Guards and their Selection
• Safety by Construction : A shaft end or any part
without nip, spoke, nail or protruding projection
moving at very slow speed, any sliding or link
mechanism moving at very slow speed without
danger of trapping or crushing, a power operated
sliding door which will stop or return at touch are
some of the examples of safety by construction. Such
unguarded slow moving parts without risk are
considered safe by construction.
• Built-in-safety should not be understood as safety by
construction. The dangerous moving parts enclosed in
casing so that no separate guard is required are an
example of built-in-safety.
• Safety by Position: When dangerous parts are so
situated by height, depth or position that it is
normally difficult to touch them, they are called ‘safe
by position’.
Various types of guards are shown classified in
previous part. Their suitability should be selected.
Preference should be given to the simplest type of guard
ensuring complete safety. Some are described below and
some in subsequent paras.
• Fixed guards: They are simple, easy to provide and
cover parts as well as throwing particles if any. They
are of various types, materials and design.
• Fixed total enclosures are used to cover prime
mover and transmission parts such as headstock
gearing, belts, pulleys etc.
• Fixed limited access guards provide minimum
opening in the guard to insert and remove the job
(material). It disallows finger to trap.
• Fixed adjustable access guards provide opening
through or around guard to accommodate materials
of different sizes.
• Fencing, distance or barrier guards make it physically
difficult for people to gain access. Nip guard to in-
running rolls and fixed railing or fencing to engines,
motors, planning or shaping machine are of this type.
• Interlock guards make certain that the machine
cannot be started until the guard screen is in close
position and conversely the guard cannot be removed
until the working parts have been stopped.
Mechanical, electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic
systems are used to actuate the guard.
• Trip guards are actuated by anyone approaching
beyond the safe position and operate a stop or
reverse control viz.
• Control guards activate the machine when the guard
is closed and opening the guard stops it. Thus the
guard acts as on-off switch.
• Automatic guards will ensure that the operator is
prevented from coming into contact with dangerous
parts when the machine is set in motion accidentally.
• Photo-electric guard (device) operates to stop the
dangerous part when the light curtain is interrupted.
• Safety by Machine Controls: These should be
differentiated from incidental safety devices which
are external and work like guard for protection. But
the machine itself has many controls as its inherent
or attached elements. All levels, buttons, brakes,
pedals, switches, handles, wheels, auto controls etc.,
are machine controls to run the machine safely and
• Safety by Precautions and Maintenance: Above paras
highlight the need of utmost precautions in safe
operation and maintenance of all safety guards,
devices and controls. A man has made them and a
man can make them ineffective or misuse.
Guarding of different types of Machinery
Name of the Guard/Device
Machine Suggested
1 General 1 Individual Starting/
requireme Stopping device in safe
nts position
2 Belt shifting lock
3 Guards on all moving
2 Openers/ 1 Interlock guards/
Pickers doors on beaters and
dangerous parts
2 Feed guards
3 Nip guards on fixed
rolls and lap forming
3 Cotton 1 Interlocking doors on
Cards cylinders
2 Fixed guard on licker-
3 Trained worker for
stripping or grinding
4 Garnet 1 Fixed guard on licker-
Machines ins
2 Fixed guard on Fency
3 Screen under garnet
5 Gill Boxes 1 Guard on feed end
2 Nip guards on rolls
(Distances are
6 Sliver/ Guard on calendar
Ribbon, drums and lap spool
7 Speed Interlock doors on
Frames head stock gearing
8 Spinning Guard on carriage
Mules wheels
9 Slashers/ 1 Nip guards on in-
Dryers running rolls
2 Control levers within
1.7 mt from the floor
3 Stop/Start push
buttons conveniently
10 Looms 1 Shuttle guard
2 Beam weight fall
11 Valve on 1 Locking device on
Kiers valve
Tanks & 2 Shut off valves to stop
containers overflow/splash
12 Shearing Guard on revolving
Machines blades (opening less
than 1 cm)
13 Bleaching Nip guard on rolls
14 Mercerizi 1 Stop button at each end
ng range of the machine
2 Guard on frame
between chain & clip
3 Nip guard on mangle
rolls & washers
15 Centri- 1 Interlock guard on
fugal basket
extractors 2 Brake to stop basket
16 Mangles, Nip guards on
Washers in-running rolls
17 Sanforizin 1 Nip guards on
g and in-running rolls
2 Side guards on
in-running rolls
3 Trip rod, cable or wire
near cylinders. Height
not more than 1.7 mt
from working platform
18 Rope 1 Splash guards
washers 2 Trip rod near washers
19 Washers, 1 Interlock door on
tumblers cylinder
or shakers 2 Holding open device
for cylinder doors
20 Printing 1 Nip guard on rolls
machine 2 Fixed guards on rollers,
gears & wheel
21 Calendars Nip guard on rolls
22 Rotary Guard on cutting zone
23 Plating Guard on space
machine between knife and card
24 Hand Handle stop guard at
baling right angle to the frame
25 Flat work Trip bar/guard on first
ironer pressure (feed) rolls to
stop the machine
Note : See Chapter 21 a
Built-in-Safety Devices
• The object of built-in safety device is to design and
make the machine, equipment, method and
environment so safe that the workers’ exposure to
accident or injury is eliminated or controlled
• It is well experienced that many a times the guards
provided on the machines are removed, not re-fitted
and dangerous parts run without guards. Such unsafe
practice leads to accidents. Therefore it is always
essential to incorporate built-in safety devices
(guards) from the design stage so that they become
integral part of the machine and subsequent guarding
is least required.
• Built-in-safety can be designed for point of operation,
transmission parts, controls, maintenance,
adjustment and cleaning. Unnecessary projecting
parts should be avoided. Risk at cutter, tool or
equipment should be eliminated or minimised by
design, enclosure, handle etc., closed tools are safer
than open tools, controls should be in easy reach and
inching or slow motion, braking, tripping, reversing
etc. should be provided where necessary.
Benefits of Built-in Safety Devices :
1. They are more safe from accident prevention point
of view.
2. They serve more than one purpose.
3. They are less costly in long run. Subsequent addition
of guards requires frequent maintenance and they
are usually more costly and less effective.
4. They provide better standard to the design and
operation of the machine.
5. Need for training and supervision to control unsafe
acts is reduced.
6. It helps for efficient production, high morale and
less labour turnover.
• For best results, planning at initial engineering level is
necessary. Right from the drawing and design stage to
the delivery stage, all safety aspects should be built-
in. The responsibility should also be extended to
product design, machine design, plant layout and
working conditions, selection and specification of
materials, production planning, time study methods,
duties of production foreman and the duties of the
• The disadvantage of built-in guards is that slight
modification or unanticipated circumstances, after
machine installation can render the guarding less
effective. Therefore necessary correction in safety
device should be made if such change is required.
Incidental Safety Devices and Methods
• Two Hand control : Two push buttons are required to
be operated simultaneously thus keeping the
operator’s hands engaged and away from the
dangerous parts.
• Optical Sensor : This uses photo-electric cell and a
light. On interruption of light beam, the dangerous
part is stopped.
• Electromagnetic Sensor : This uses a sensor of
electromagnetic field, a coupler and interconnecting
cable and a control unit.
• Mechanical Feed : A positioning device like conveyor
or a rotating table moves the parts or material into
the point of operation where the hazard exists thus
avoiding human contact there.
• Pedal Guard : Such guard on foot-pedal of a power
press prevents accidental foot-stroke on the pedal.
• Ultrasonic device : Inaudible high-frequency sound
senses the presence of any part in the danger zone.
• Feed Hopper : It extends the feed length to prevent
access. It can be used on pug mill, rubber mill etc.
Maintenance and Repairs of Guards
• A guard removed for repair should be fitted at the
earliest possible and meanwhile temporary guard
should be installed or the machine be stopped.
• A guard should be so designed or fitted that it is not
to be opened for oiling/greasing or nearby
maintenance work.
• Automatic controls for lubrication, adjustment or
service can be provided by a sophisticated
equipment. Interlock type guard ensures that the
machine cannot be operated unless all guards are in
• When a guard cannot be made to exclude lint, fume,
dusting etc., extra ventilation should be provided.
Large guards should have self-closing doors for
• Guarding during maintenance : During maintenance
of a machine, normally a guard is removed and
observation for fault, alignment, repairing or
oiling/greasing is carried out in unguarded condition.