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DETECTION OF COMMON

ADULTERANTS IN FOOD
WHAT IS ADULTERATION IN FOOD?
 Addition of any non-condimental substance to a food

 Addition of substance injurious to health

 If the article sold by a vendor is not of the nature, substance or


quality demanded by the purchaser

 Cheaper or inferior substance substitute wholly or partly for the


article

 Article had been prepared, packed or kept under insanitary


conditions
DETECTION OF ADULTERANTS
Adulteration of sweets:

 Adulterated with unpermitted synthetic colors

 Sweets like jehangir, jilebi, savories like chowchow, potato


chips contain metanil yellow and auramine

 Their consumption over a long period of time may cause


gene damage, tumours and cancer
Adulterant Test method
Metanil yellow Take suspected sample in a petri
dish, wet it with little warm water.
Add a few drops of 1:3 dilute
hydrochloric acid. Appearance
of pink colour indicates metanil
yellow.

auramine Take suspected sample in a petri


dish; add HCL. Decolourisation
indicates the presence of
auramine.
SILVER FOIL IN SWEETS
∞ To give aesthetic appearance and to avoid stickiness while
piling the sweets

∞ To increase the shell life of the product

∞ Dishonest traders use aluminium foil in the place of silver


foil

∞ Cause Alzheimer’s disease

∞ Remove the foil from the sweets and transfer to a test tube;
add 1-2ml HCL; Aluminium will dissolve while silver foil
will not dissolve.
Adulteration of food grains
ADULTERATION OF FOOD GRAINS
 Bengal gram dhal and toor dhal are commonly adulterated with
kesari dhal
 Cheaper variety
Cause lathyrism and crippling of lower limbs
Detection:
PHYSICAL TEST CHEMICAL TEST

Kesari dhal is square in shape and Take suspected sample in a beaker


its surface is smooth with a slant and boil with 1:3 HCL for five
on one side minutes. The acid layer will turn
pink if kesari dhal is present
Bengal gram surface is ribbed
Green dhal sometimes coated with synthetic colours

 To improve the appearance

 Put the dhal in water

 Colour if present will come out in water


Food Adulterant detection
particle
Pulses Metanil yellow dye Add HCL to a small quantity of dhal in a little
amount of water. Immediate development of
pink colour indicate the presence of metanil
yellow.

Lead Chromate Shake 5gm of pulse with 5ml of water and add
a few drops of HCL. Pink colour indicate the
presence of metanil yellow.

Bajra Ergot infested bajra Swollen and black ergot infested grains will turn
light in weight and will float also in water.

Wheat flour Excessive sand and dirt Shake a little quantity of sample with 10 ml of
carbon tetra chloride and allow to stand. Grit
and sandy matter will collect at the bottom.

Excessive bran Sprinkle on water surface. Bran will float on


the surface.

Chalk powder Shake sample with dilute HCL. Effervescence


indicate the presence of chalk.
MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS

 Milk is adulterated with water indirectly by removing the cream.

 This introduces disease germs.

Starch is added to make milk thicker.

 Water in milk Put a drop of milk on a polished


surface and slant it slightly.
Adulterated milk will flow quickly
without leaving any white trail.

 Starch in milk Take suspected sample in a test


tube and add tincture iodine
solution. Appearance of blue
colour indicates the presence of
starch.
DETECTION OF NEUTRALIZERS IN MILK
 Neutralizers are added to avoid spoilage of milk

 Common neutralizers are sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and


sodium bicarbonate.

 Take 5ml of milk in a test tube.

 Add 5ml of rectified spirit into it.

 Appearance of red colour or deep rose red colour indicates the presence
of neutralizer.

 Brownish colouration indicates the absence of neutralizer.


EXTRANEOUS UREA IN MILK
≈ Urea is added to milk as a preservative.

≈ It also adds viscosity to milk thereby giving a feeling of thick and


rich milk.

≈ Take 5ml of milk in a test tube.

≈ Add 5ml of para-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde reagent to it.

≈ Appearance of distinct yellow colour indicates the presence of


added urea.
SODIUM CHLORIDE IN MILK

 To increase the density of milk.

 Take 2ml of milk in a test tube.

 Add 1ml of 5% potassium chromate solution and 2ml of 0.1N


silver nitrate into it.

 The appearance of red precipitate indicates the presence of


sodium chloride in milk.
ADULTERANTS IN SUGAR

ADULTERANT DETECTION
Take half a spoon of bura sugar
in a test tube and add few drops
of 1:1 hydrochloric acid.
Washing soda Immediate appearance of
bubbles indicate the presence of
washing soda in sugar.

Take the sugar in a test tube and


add a few drops of 1:1
Chalk powder hydrochloric acid. Immediate
appearance of bubbles indicate
the presence of chalk powder in
sugar.
spices
SPICES
 Spices and condiments are used in many recipes for its pungency , flavour and
colouring power.

 Oil soluble colours to improve appearance.

 Cheap foreign starches.

 Argemone seeds are added to mustard seeds.

 Detected by physical appearance.

 Argemone seed is hard and round with a tip, dark in colour.

 Mustard seeds have a smooth and round surface without a tip.


Food particle Adulterant Detection
Black pepper Papaya seeds, light berries etc. Pour the seeds in a beaker
containing carbon
tetrachloride. Black papaya
seeds float on the top while
the pure black pepper seeds
settle down.

Spices(ground) Powdered bran and saw dust Sprinkle on water surface.


Powdered bran and saw
dust float on water.
chillies
Chillies
 Chillies may be adulterated with brick powder grit, sand, dirt, filth etc.

 Oil soluble colours like Sudan

Brick powder, sand, dirt etc. Pour the sample in a beaker containing a
mixture of chloroform and carbon
tetrachloride. Brick powder and grit will
settle down at the bottom.

Colour Pour the sample in a beaker containing a


mixture of petroleum ether and diethyl
ether. Decant the solvent concentrate and
spot on a TLC plate. Distinct spots appear
for oil soluble colour on developing with
the solvent.
turmeric
Turmeric
Adulterant Test Method
Starch of maize, wheat, tapioca, rice. A microscopic study reveals that only pure
turmeric is yellow coloured, big in size and
has an angular structure , while foreign
starches are colourless and small in size.

Lead chromate Ash the simple. Dissolve it in 1:7 sulphuric


acid and filter. Add 1 or 2 drops of 0.1% of
diphenyl carbazide. A violet colour
indicates the presence of lead chromate.

Metanil yellow Add few drops of concentrated


hydrochloric acid to sample. Instant
appearance of violet colour which
disappears on dilution with water, indicates
pure turmeric. If colour persists metanil
yellow is present.
Food Article Adulterant Detection
Coriander powder Dung powder Soak in water. Dung will float
and can be easily detected by its
foul smell.

Common salt To 5ml of sample add a few


drops of silver nitrate. White
precipitate indicates
adulteration..
Badi Elaichi seeds Choti Elaichi seeds Separate out the seeds by
physical examination. The
seeds of badi elaichi have
nearly palin surface without
wrinkles while seeds of
cardamom have pitted or
wrinkled ends.
Food article Adulterant Detection

Cumin seeds Grass seeds coloured with Rub the cumin seeds on palms.
charcoal dust. If palm turns black
adulteration is indicated.

Asafoetida Soap stone, other earthy matter. Shake a little quantity of


powdered sample with water.
Soap stone or other earthy
matter will settle at the bottom.
honey
ADULTERANTS IN HONEY
Invert sugar/jaggery Fiehe’s test-add 5ml of solvent ether to 5 ml of honey.
Shake well and decant the ether layer in a petri dish.
Evaporate completely by blowing the ether layer. Add 2 to
3ml of resorcinol. Appearance of cherry red colour
indicates the presence of sugar/jaggery.

Aniline chloride test- Take 5ml of honey in a porcelain


dish. Add aniline chloride solution and stir well. Orange
red colour indicates the presence of sugar.
Coffee and tea
Coffee and tea

Food article Adulterant Detection


Coffee chicory Take a measuring
cylinder and fill it with water and
gently sprinkle the coffee powder
sample on the surface of water.
Coffee floats over the surface of
water but chicory begins to sink
leaving a trail of brownish yellow
colour.
Tea synthetic colours Take a filter paper and
spread the tea dust evenly. Sprinkle
water to wet the filter paper. If
synthetic colour is present, it will
impart colour to filter paper.
Common Non-conformities found in Imported Food Products
Food Item Observations
Sweets & Colours-Allura Red, Quinoline Yellow. Added vegetable fat in chocolates.
Confectioneries Low fat content in chocolates.

Labeling Provisions- Manufacturers address, importers address in India not


available. Date of manufacture. Best before or expiry date not available.
In case of hard-boiled confectionery less than 20 g labeling provisions to be
adhered in the multipack.

Fruit Products Low net weight


NO fruit juice content but contains fresh fruit flavour-declared as natural
juice.
Contains Allura Red and Quinoline yellow which is not permitted under
PFA.
Fruit juice containing spirulina under low concentrations-Declared as health
drink but fruit juice content not declared.

Labeling: Synthetic flavoured drinks containing figure of fruits.


Manufacturers address. Importers address. Best before or expiry date not given.
OILS AND FATS
OILS AND FATS
Food Article Adulterant Test Method
Vegetable oil Castor oil Take 1 ml of oil in aclean dry
test tube. Add 10 ml of acidified petroleum
ether. Shake vigorously for 2 minutes. Add
one drop of ammonium molybdate
reagent. The formation of turbidity
indicates presence of castor oil in the
sample.

Argemone oil Add 5ml of concentrated nitric


acid to 5ml sample. Shake carefully. Allow
to separate. Yellow, orange yellow and
crimson colour in the lower acid layer
indicates adulteration.
DETECTION OF SESAME OIL IN EDIBLE OILS- BAUDOUIN TEST
take 5ml of oil in a 25ml measuring cylinder.

Take 5ml HCL and 0.4ml furfural solution.

Insert glass stopper and shake vigorously for 2 minutes.

Allow the mixture to separate.

Development of pink or red colour in lower acid layer indicates the presence of
sesame oil.

Confirm by adding 5ml of water and shake again.

If colour disappears, sesame oil is absent


DETECTION OF PALMOLEIN IN GROUNDNUT OIL-CLOUD TEST
 Heat 60-75 gram sample to 130°C.

 Pour 45ml of heated fat into an oil sample bottle.

 Place the bottle in water a bath.

 Begin to cool the bottle in the water bath, stirring to keep the temperature uniform.

 When sample has reached the temperature 10°C above cloud point, stir steadily and rapidly in
a circular motion.

 Cloud point is that temperature at which the first turbidity appears.

 Remove the bottle from the bath and read the temperature.

 Presence of palmolein over 10% in groundnut oil readily gives cloud at a higher temperature
than that of groundnut oil.
DETECTION OF ANIMAL FAT IN VEGETABLE FAT
Microscopic Examination
 Take about 2 gram melted fat sample in test tube.

 Mix with 10 ml diethyl ether.

 Plug the tubes with cotton and leave for thirty minutes in ice bath.

 Keep it for 24 hours at 20°C (crystallization)

 Place the crystals on a drop of glycerin previously taken on a microscopic slide.

 Cover the crystals immediately with cover glass.

 Examine under x160 and finally x400 magnifications.

 Beef tallow crystals appear in the shape of characteristic fan like tufts, the end of which are
pointed.

 Hydrogenated fats deposit smaller crystals.


DETECTION OF MINERAL OIL IN EDIBLE OIL- HOLDE’S TEST
 Take 22 ml of alcoholic KOH in a conical flask.

 Add 1 ml of sample of oil to be tested.

 Boil on a water bath using an air condenser till the solution becomes clear and
no oily drops are found.

 Transfer the contents to a warm test tube.

 Add 25 ml of boiling distilled water along the sides of the test tube.

 Keep on shaking the tube.

 Turbidity indicates the presence of mineral oil.


DETECTION OF OIL SOLUBLE COAL TAR DYES IN OILS
† Take 5 ml of oil sample in a conical flask.

† Add 25 ml of hexane followed by 10g silica gel and 2g anhydrous sodium sulfate.

† Stir the mixture and leave for 5 minutes.

† Decant off the solvent.

† Add again 25 ml of hexane and stir, decant.

† Repeat this process 3-4 times.

† Elute the colour absorbed by silica gel with diethyl ether 2 to 3 times.

† Evaporate ether.

† Spot on a TLC plate and develop in a tank containing solvent mixture.

† Remove the plate and heat at 100°C in an oven for 1 hour.

† Natural colours would fade away on heating.


ADULTERATION IN GHEE
ADULTERANT DETECTION
Boil 5 ml of sample in a test tube. Cool and
add a drop of iodine solution. Blue colour
Mashed potato, sweet potato etc. indicates the presence of starch.

Take 5 ml of sample in a test tube. Add 5 ml of


HCL and a few sugar crystals. Insert the
Vanaspati stopper and shake for 2 minutes. Development
of pink or red colour indicates the presence of
vanaspati in ghee.

Take 1 teaspoon of melted sample and add 5


ml of HCL. Shake vigorously for 30 seconds.
Rancid stuff(old ghee) Add 5 ml of phloroglucinol solution and shake
for 30 seconds. Allow to stand for 10 minutes.
A pink or red colour in the acid layer indicates
rancidity.

Dissolve 2g ghee in ether. Divide into 2


Synthetic colour portions. Add 1 ml of HCL to one tube and 1
ml of 10% NAOH to other tube. Shake well
and allow to stand. Presence of pink colour in
acid solution or yellow colour in alkaline
solution indicates added colouring matter.