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 is the contamination of water bodies, usually

as a result of human activities. Water bodies

include for example lakes, rivers, oceans,
aquifers and groundwater.
 Water pollution results when contaminants
are introduced into the natural environment.
 There are various classifications of water
pollution. The two chief sources of water
pollution can be seen as Point and Non-Point.
1. Point refers to the pollutants that belong to
a single source. An example of this would
be emissions from factories into the water.
2. Non-Point means pollutants emitted from
multiple sources.
Industrial Waste
• Industries produce a huge amount of waste
which contains toxic chemicals and
pollutants which can cause water pollution
and damage to us and our environment.
They contain pollutants such as lead,
mercury, sulfur, asbestos, nitrates, and many
other harmful chemicals.
Sewage and Wastewater
• The sewage and wastewater that is produced by
each household is chemically treated and released
into the sea with fresh water. The sewage water
carries harmful bacteria and chemicals that can
cause serious health problems. Pathogens are
known as a common water pollutant; The sewers of
cities house several pathogens and thereby
Marine Dumping
• The garbage produced by each household in
the form of paper, aluminum, rubber, glass,
plastic, food is collected and deposited into
the sea in some countries. These items take
from 2 weeks to 200 years to decompose.
When such items enter the sea, they not only
cause water pollution but also harm animals
in the sea.
Accidental Oil Leakage
• Oil spill poses a huge concern as a large
amount of oil enters into the sea and does
not dissolve with water; thereby opens
problem for local marine wildlife such as
fish, birds and sea otters.
The Burning of Fossil Fuels
• Fossil fuels like coal and oil when burnt
produce a substantial amount of ash in the
atmosphere. The particles which contain toxic
chemicals when mixed with water vapor
result in acid rain. Also, carbon dioxide is
released from the burning of fossil fuels
which result in global warming.
Chemical fertilizers and pesticides
• Chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used by
farmers to protect crops from insects and bacterias.
They are useful for the plant’s growth. However,
when these chemicals are mixed up with water
produce harmful for plants and animals. Also, when
it rains, the chemicals mix up with rainwater and
flow down into rivers and canals which pose serious
damages for aquatic animals.
Radioactive Waste
• Nuclear energy is produced using nuclear fission or
fusion. The element that is used in the production
of nuclear energy is Uranium which is a highly toxic
chemical. The nuclear waste that is produced by
radioactive material needs to be disposed of to
prevent any nuclear accident. Nuclear waste can
have serious environmental hazards if not disposed
of properly.
Leakage From The Landfills
• Landfills are nothing but a huge pile of
garbage that produces the awful smell and
can be seen across the city. When it rains, the
landfills may leak and the leaking landfills can
pollute the underground water with a large
variety of contaminants.
Animal Waste
• The waste produced by animals is washed
away into the rivers when it rains. It gets
mixed up with other harmful chemicals and
causes various water-borne diseases like
cholera, diarrhea, jaundice, dysentery and
 Death of Aquatic Animals
The main problem caused by water pollution is
that it kills organisms that depend on these
water bodies. Dead fish, crabs, birds and sea
gulls, dolphins, and many other animals often
wind up on beaches, killed by pollutants in their
habitat (living environment).
 Disruption of Food Chains
Pollution disrupts the natural food chain as
well. Pollutants such as lead and cadmium are
eaten by tiny animals. Later, these animals are
consumed by fish and shellfish, and the food
chain continues to be disrupted at all higher
 Diseases
Eventually, humans are affected by this process
as well. People can get diseases such as
hepatitis by eating seafood that has been
 Destruction Of Ecosystems
Ecosystems (the interaction of living things in a
place, depending on each other for life) can be
severely changed or destroyed by water
pollution. Many areas are now being affected
by careless human pollution, and this pollution
is coming back to hurt humans in many ways.
 Proper Sewage Treatment
Most urban regions around the world are
served by domestic sewer systems that collect
sewer waste to a central collection point for
treatment after which it is emptied into lakes,
rivers or oceans to undergo biological
 Green Agricultural Practices
Farmers can formulate and put into practice nutrient
management plans to curtail excess nutrients
application thereby reducing the potential for
phosphates and nitrates pollution. The impacts of
pesticides and herbicides application can be managed
by using integrated pest management (IPM)
techniques such as biological pest control to control
pests and minimize dependence on chemical
 Industrial Waste Water Treatment
 Reducing the water pollution effects caused by
industries thus, require well-designed treatment
and water cooling systems. As much as industries
have these specialized waste treatment systems, a
good number of industries have poorly maintained
systems and some entirely lack quality treatment
protocols. The installation of pre-treatment
facilities and adoption of quality waste treatment
protocols can extensively help to eliminate the
toxic contaminants.
 Anti-pollution Laws and Policies
Anti-pollution laws and regulations at local, state and
international levels are perfect measures for curtailing
water pollution. Laws have always played an excellent
role to ensure water pollution levels are kept to the
minimum. Environmental protection policies such as
the Clean Water Acts work to ensure that anti-
pollution laws are effected and apply to all significant
waters including ground water.
 Individual Efforts and Educative Campaigns
Individuals and groups aware of the dangers of water
pollution can educate family, friends, and even the
society as a whole through joint campaigns and
advocacy. Examples include the use of media,
institutions, and online educative forums.
 Republic Act No. 9275: The Philippine Clean Water
Act of 2004
 was signed by former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on March
22, 2004. It took effect on May 6, 2004, with its Implementing
Rules and Regulation (IRR) contained in the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Administrative Order
(A.O.) No. 2005-10.
 was signed to “pursue a policy of economic growth in a manner
consistent with the protection, preservation and revival of the quality
of our fresh, brackish and marine waters”
 For any person committing any of the prohibited acts or violating
any of the provision of the law or its IRR – not less than Ten
thousand pesos (P10,000.00) nor more than Two hundred thousand
pesos (P200,000.00) for every day of violation (to be increased by
ten percent (10%) every two (2) years to compensate for inflation and
to maintain the deterrent function of such fines)
 imprisonment of not less than six (6) years and one day and not
more than twelve (12) years, and a fine of Five Hundred Thousand
Pesos (P500,000.00) per day for each day during which the omission
and/or contamination continues.
 Clean Water Act (Federal Water Pollution Control Act
Amendments of 1972)
 Its objective is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical,
and biological integrity of the nation's waters; recognizing the
responsibilities of the states in addressing pollution and
providing assistance to states to do so, including funding for
publicly owned treatment works for the improvement of
wastewater treatment; and maintaining the integrity of
wetlands.It is one of the United States' first and most
influential modern environmental laws.
 For a first offense of criminal negligence, the minimum fine is
$2,500, with a maximum of $25,000 fine per day of violation.
A violator may also receive up to a year in jail. On a second
offense, a maximum fine of $50,000 per day may be issued.
 For a knowing endangerment violation, i.e. placing another
person in imminent danger of death or serious bodily injury,
a fine may be issued up to $250,000 and/or imprisonment up
to 15 years for an individual, or up to $1,000,000 for an