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Lecture 3:

Take-off
Performance
AIRCRAFT WEIGHT &
PERFORMANCE
Take-Off
• The take off part of a flight is the distance from the brake
release point to the point at which the aircraft reaches a
defined height over the surface (35ft).

• During the take off roll, lift is created on the wings to


overcome the aircraft weight.

• This is done by forward acceleration of the aircraft


produced by greater thrust force then drag.
Take-Off
Forces Acting On Aircraft
During Take Off

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The take off distance required
depends on the interaction of
forces:
• The thrust varies during take off, in general it decreases as
aircraft speeds up.
• The total drag of the aircraft during take off results from
aerodynamic drag and wheel drag. As the aircraft speeds
up the aerodynamic drag will increase. The wheel drag
depends on the load and the runway surface resistance.
But as the aircraft speeds up the lift force increases, which
reduces the load on the wheels and therefore reduces the
wheel drag (eventually to zero).
• The lift force increases, as aircraft speeds up.
• The aircraft weight remains constant.
Take-Off Performance
• The more powerful the engine and the lighter the aircraft,
the quickly the aircraft will accelerate and the shorter the
take-off distance will be.
• Take-off Distance is the total length of the take-off run (or
take-off roll) and the initial climb distance to 35ft.
• Take-off should not be attempted if the take-off distance
available is less than the take-off distance required.
Actually, the factors that affect lift, weight, thrust and drag forces
are the factors that affect aircraft performance during take off.

1. Aircraft’s
Weight

2. Air Density
Factors Affecting
Take-off 3. Wind
Performance
4. Runway
Conditions
5. Aircraft Configurations
a) Flap Setting
b)Airframe Contamination
1. Aircraft Weight
• ↑ Weight = ↑ Take-Off Distance (and speed)

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1. Aircraft Weight
• Weight limitations (MTOW) are set to ensure adequate
margins of strength and performance during take-off.
• When loading the aircraft care must be taken not to exceed
the limits given.
• The greater the weight, the greater the lift force is required
to overcome the weight, therefore greater speed is
necessary for take off (lift formula).
2. AIR DENSITY

• ↑ Air Density = ↓ Distance


• The greater the air density, the shorter the take-off
distance required.
• Air density is mass of air per volume of air.
• Air density is influenced by temperature,
humidity, airfield elevation & atmospheric
pressure
• Lower the temperature, higher the air density.
• Lower the humidity, higher the air density.
• Lower the airfield elevation, higher the atmospheric
pressure, thus higher the air density. 10
2. AIR DENSITY
• As air density is reduced (for example, with
increasing altitude), take-off distance begins to
increase quickly.
• In aircraft performance the term Density Altitude
is used.
• Density Altitude is the International Standard
Atmosphere (ISA) altitude with the same density
as the existing pressure and temperature.
3. WIND
• The distance required for take off depends on the
ground speed.
• While the lift and the drag during take off depend
on air speed.
• ↑ Headwind = ↓ Distance

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3. WIND
• Headwind is wind which is blowing in the
opposite direction of the aircraft movement.
• Tailwind is wind which is blowing in the parallel
direction of the aircraft movement.
• A headwind reduces the ground speed at a
required take off air speed and reduces the take
off distance.
• A tailwind increases the ground speed thus
increases the take off distance.
• Crosswind (wind from left or right of the aircraft)
component has no effect on the take off distance.
4. RUNWAY CONDITIONS
• Runway slope affects the rate of acceleration
• ↑ Slope = ↑ Take-Off Roll
• Runway surface conditions affect the wheel drag
• Standing water
• Snow
• Slush
• ↑ Friction = ↑ Take-Off Roll

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4. RUNWAY CONDITIONS
• Any runway slope (a surface which one side is at
a higher level than another) will affect take-off
performance.
• A down slope allows the aircraft the aircraft to
accelerate more quickly thus reducing the take off
distance required.
• An up slope reduces the accelerating force thus
increasing the take off distance.
• The runway surface condition has effect on the
wheel drag. If the runway is contaminated by
snow, slush or standing water, the wheel drag will
be greater. Thus the accelerating force decreases
and the take off distance required increases.
5. Aircraft Configurations
a) Flap Setting
• ↑ Flaps = ↓ Take-off Roll

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a) Flap Setting
• Flap setting has an affect on the aerodynamic drag.
• Most aircraft use 10 to 15 degree flaps on take-
off.
• Take off distance will decrease with increase of
flap angle initially, but increasing the flap angle
increases the drag, and so reduces the climb
gradient for a given aircraft mass.
• If there are obstacles to be considered in the take
off flight path, the flap setting that gives the
shortest take off distance may not give the
required climb gradient for obstacle clearance.
a) Flap Setting

• Flaps can give the aircraft extra Lift . The use of flaps
during take-off is to reduce take-off roll distance. While
during landing is to reduce landing speed and landing roll
distance.
b)Airframe Contamination
• In addition if the airframe is contaminated by
frost, ice or snow during take off the aircraft
performance will be reduced, and the take off
distance will be increased.
identify the maximum
weight at take off from
the performance chart
in a given set of
conditions.
Determine maximum weight at take
off from the performance chart
• This action is performed before take off in order
to confirm that the actual weight is below the
maximum permissible take off weight at
particular conditions.
• The determination of Maximum Weight are done
by considering available runway length,
temperature (air density), wind direction, runway
slope, flap setting, and airfield elevation.
Determine the MAXIMUM TAKE-OFF
WEIGHT (MTOW)
Given the conditions determine the maximum
permissible take off weight:
- Elevation 4000 feet
- Temperature 32 degC
- RWY 3000m dry slope 1% up
- Wind 20kt head component
- Flap setting 15

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63 000kg

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Steps to Read the Chart
• Step 1: From the bottom of the chart, vertical line is drawn
at a corresponding runway length (in this example
3000m) until the reference line for the runway slope
adjustments.
• Step 2: Then the line follows the closest trend line for the
runway slope until it reaches the corresponding value (in
this case 1% up).
• Step 3: From that position vertical is drawn to the
intersection with the wind reference line. Then the line
follows the closest trend line for wind adjustment until it
reaches the value for the wind (20 kt headwind).

Steps to Read the Chart
• Step 4: Further on, same principle is used. A vertical line
is drawn from that position to the flap reference line.
Then the line follows the trend lines until the
corresponding value (15 degrees).
• Step 5: From that position on the chart the vertical line
is drawn until the intersection with the second line
taking into account airfield elevation and temperature,
which starts from the bottom left at the corresponding
air temperature (32 C).
Steps to Read the Chart
• Step 5: The line is drawn until the intersection with the
elevation line (4000ft). Then the line continues
horizontally to the intersection with the reference line
and from there it follows the closest trend line to the
intersection with the first correction line. The
intersection is the maximum permissible weight at take off
( 63 000 kg).
Determine the MAXIMUM TAKE-OFF
WEIGHT (MTOW)

Given the conditions determine the maximum permissible take


off weight:
- Elevation 4000 feet
- Temperature 32 degC
- RWY 2500m dry slope 2% down
- Wind 10kt tail component
- Flap setting 10

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57 000kg