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TECHNNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

ME 19-Steam Power Engineering

Engr. Rexmelle F. Decapia


ME 19-STEAM POWER ENGINEERING
TECHNNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

COAL
Is (from the Old English term col,
which has meant "mineral of fossilized
carbon" since the 13th century) is a
combustible black or brownish-black
sedimentary rock usually occurring in
rock strata in layers or veins
called coal beds or coal seams.
Is a readily combustible rock
containing more than 50 percent by
weight of carbonaceous material
formed from compaction and
indurations of variously altered plant
remains similar to those in peat.
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COAL FORMATIONS
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COAL CLASSIFICATION
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COAL CLASSIFICATION
PEAT
Peat (turf) is an accumulation of
partially decayed vegetation or organic
matter that is unique to natural areas
called peat lands, bogs, or mires.
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COAL CLASSIFICATION
LIGNITE
Often referred to as brown coal, is a soft
brown combustible sedimentary rock
formed from naturally compressed peat.
It is considered the lowest rank
of coal due to its relatively low heat
content.
It increases in maturity by becoming
darker and harder and is then classified
as sub-bituminous coal. After a
continuous process of burial and
alteration, chemical and physical
changes occur until the coal is classified
as bituminous - dark and hard coal.
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COAL CLASSIFICATION
BITUMINOUS
Also called black coal is a relatively soft
coal containing a tarlike substance called
bitumen.
It is of higher quality than lignite coal
but of poorer quality than anthracite.
Formation is usually the result of high
pressure being exerted on lignite.
It ignites easily and burns long with a
relatively long flame. If improperly fired
bituminous coal is characterized with
excess smoke and soot.
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COAL CLASSIFICATION
ANTHRACITE
It has the highest carbon content,
the fewest impurities, and the
highest calorific content of all types
of coal, which also include
bituminous coal and lignite.
Is a high-ranking coal with more
fixed carbon and less volatile matter
than bituminous, subbituminous,
or lignite varieties.
Is the last classification, the
ultimate maturation.
Is very hard and shiny.
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COAL ANALYSIS
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS-parameters include sulfur, moisture,
volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon.

Sulfur Content Moisture Content


Typical range is 0.5 to 0.8% Moisture in coal must be transported,
normally. handled and stored. Since it replaces
• Affects clinkering and slagging combustible matter, it decreases the
heat content per kg of coal. Typical
tendencies.
range is 0.5 to 10%.
• Corrodes chimney and other
• Increases heat loss, due to
equipment such as air heaters evaporation and superheating of
and economizers. vapor
• Limits exit flue gas temperature • Helps to a certain extent with
binding fines
• Aids radiation heat transfer
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COAL ANALYSIS
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS-parameters include sulfur, moisture,
volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon.

Volatile Matter Content Ash Content


Volatile matters are the methane, Ash is an impurity that will not burn.
hydrocarbons, hydrogen and carbon Typical range is 5% to 40%.
monoxide, and incombustible gases like • Reduces handling and burning
carbon dioxide and nitrogen found in coal.
capacity
Thus the volatile matter is an index of the
gaseous fuels present. A typical range of • Increases handling costs
volatile matter is 20 to 35%. • Affects combustion efficiency and
• Proportionately increases flame length, boiler efficiency
and helps in easier ignition of coal • Causes clinkering and slagging
• Sets minimum limit on the furnace
height and volume
• Influences secondary air requirement
and distribution aspects
• Influences secondary oil support
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COAL ANALYSIS
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS-parameters include sulfur, moisture,
volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon.

Fixed Carbon Content


Fixed carbon is the solid fuel left in
the furnace after volatile matter is
distilled off. It consists mostly of
carbon but also contains some
hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and
nitrogen not driven off with the
gases. Fixed carbon gives a rough
estimate of the heating value of
coal.
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COAL ANALYSIS
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS-parameters include sulfur, moisture,
volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon.

Measurement of moisture
The determination of moisture
content is carried out by placing a
sample of powdered raw coal of size
200-micron size in an uncovered
crucible, which is placed in the
oven kept at 108 ± 2 oC along with
the lid. Then the sample is cooled
to room temperature and weighed
again. The loss in weight represents
moisture.
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COAL ANALYSIS
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS-parameters include sulfur, moisture,
volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon.
Measurement of volatile matter

A fresh sample of crushed coal is


weighed, placed in a covered
crucible, and heated in a furnace at
900 ± 15 oC. The sample is cooled
and weighed. Loss of weight
represents moisture and volatile
matter. The remainder is coke
(fixed carbon and ash).
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COAL ANALYSIS
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS-parameters include sulfur, moisture,
volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon.
Measurement of carbon and ash
The cover from the crucible used
in the last test is removed and the
crucible is heated over the Bunsen
burner until all the carbon is
burned. The residue is weighed,
which is the incombustible ash.
The difference in weight from the
previous weighing is the fixed
carbon. In actual practice Fixed
Carbon or FC derived by
subtracting from 100 the value of
moisture, volatile matter and ash.
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COAL ANALYSIS
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS-parameters include sulfur, moisture,
volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon.
Typical Sulfur Content in Coal Typical Moisture Content in Coal
Anthracite Coal : 0.6 - 0.77 weight % Anthracite Coal : 2.8 - 16.3 weight %
Bituminous Coal : 0.7 - 4.0 weight % Bituminous Coal : 2.2 - 15.9 weight %
Lignite Coal : 0.4 weight % Lignite Coal : 39 weight %
Typical Fixed Carbon Content in Typical Density of Coal
Coal 1100 - 1800 (kg/m3)
Anthracite Coal : 80.5 - 85.7 weight %
Bituminous Coal : 44.9-78.2 weight %
Lignite Coal : 31.4 weight %
Typical Bulk Density of Coal
Anthracite Coal : 50 - 58 (lb/ft3), 800 - 929 (kg/m3)
Typical Ash Content in Coal
Bituminous Coal : 42 - 57 (lb/ft3), 673 - 913 (kg/m3) Anthracite Coal : 9.7 - 20.2 weight %
Lignite Coal : 40 - 54 (lb/ft3), 641 - 865 (kg/m3) Bituminous Coal : 3.3-11.7 weight %
Lignite Coal : 4.2 weight %
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COAL ANALYSIS
ULTIMATE ANALYSIS-indicates the various elemental
chemical constituents such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
nitrogen, sulfur, ash, and moisture. It is useful in
determining the quantity of air required for combustion
and the volume and composition of the combustion
gases. This information is required for the calculation of
flame temperature and the flue duct design etc.
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COAL ANALYSIS
ULTIMATE ANALYSIS
Carbon Content
By far the major component of coal, is the principal source of heat, generating about
14,500 British thermal units (Btu) per pound. The typical carbon content for coal (dry
basis) ranges from more than 60 percent for lignite to more than 80 percent for anthracite.

Hydrogen Content
It generates about 62,000 Btu per pound, it accounts for only 5 percent or less of coal and
not all of this is available for heat because part of the hydrogen combines with oxygen to
form water vapor.

Oxygen Content
The higher the oxygen content of coal, the lower its heating value. This inverse relationship
occurs because oxygen in the coal is bound to the carbon and has, therefore, already
partially oxidized the carbon, decreasing its ability to generate heat.
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TECHNNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

COAL ANALYSIS
ULTIMATE ANALYSIS
Nitrogen Content
Has no calorific value and hence ist presence in coal is undesirable, Thus a good quality
coal should have a very little Nitrogen content.

Sulfur Content
The amount of heat contributed by the combustion of sulfur in coal is relatively small,
because the heating value of sulfur is only about 4,000 Btu per pound, and the sulfur
content of coal generally averages 1 to 2 percent by weight.
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TECHNNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

COAL ANALYSIS
ULTIMATE ANALYSIS
Basis of Reporting Analysis
As received or as Fired
Dry or Moisture Free
Moisture and Ash Free or Combustible
Moisture, Ash, and Sulfur Free
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Sample Problems
Report the analysis of following fuel using the following basis:
 As fired/as received
 Moisture free/dry
 Moisture and Ash Free/Combustible
 Moisture, Ash, and Sulfur free

Heatin
g Vale
Proximate Ultimate
County

Rank
State

Hydrogen
Moisture

Nitrogen

Oxygen
Carbon

Carbon
Volatile
Matter

Sulfur
Fixed

Ash
Cherokee
Kansas

13,082
34.47

52.17

71.81

10.15
5.09

8.27

3.34

5.23

1.20
Bit
Carbon

12,521
39.72

47.17

69.12

17.18
Utah

7.49

5.62

0.64

6.09

1.35
Bit
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COAL ANALYSIS
HIGHER HEATING VALUE
The higher heating value (also known gross calorific value or
gross energy) of a fuel is defined as the amount of heat released
by a specified quantity (initially at 25°C) once it is combusted
and the products have returned to a temperature of 25°C,
which takes into account the latent heat of vaporization of
water in the combustion products.
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Sample Problems
Calculate the boiler heat balance on the as fired basis for the following
data
Fuel: Cherokee County, Kansas Coal
Gas Analysis: 14.2% CO2 , 0.3% CO, 4.3% O2
Coal fired: 22,260 lb/hr
Refuse: 2,560 lb/hr
Water: 202,030 lb/hr
Water entering: 324.7oF
Steam leaving: 476 psig, 743oF
Fuel and room temperature: 82oF
Gas temperature: 463oF
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COAL ANALYSIS
THEORETICAL AIR REQUIRED

Note: For ASME Test Code, Wta is calculated using the


carbon actually burned per oound of fuel (Cab).
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COAL ANALYSIS
WEIGHT OF REFUSE

CARBON ACTUALLY BURNED


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COAL ANALYSIS
WEIGHT OF DRY GAS

Note: N2 + CO + CO2 + O2 = 100%

POUNDS OF IN THE CARBON MONOXIDE PER POUND OF FU


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COAL ANALYSIS
ACTUAL WEIGHT OF AIR
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BOILER HEAT BALANCE

Q1= energy absorbed by the boiler fluid


Q2= energy loss due to dry flue gas
Q3= energy loss due to moisture in fuel
Q4= energy loss due to evaporating and superheating of
moisture formed by combustion of hydrogen
Q5= energy loss due to incomplete combustion of
carbon to CO
Q6= energy loss due to combustible in refuse
Q7= energy loss due to radiation and unaccounted for
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BOILER HEAT BALANCE

Q1= energy absorbed by the boiler fluid

Q2= energy loss due to dry flue gas


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BOILER HEAT BALANCE


Q3= energy loss due to moisture in fuel

when tg < 575 o F

when tg > 575 o F


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TECHNNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

BOILER HEAT BALANCE


Q4= energy loss due to evaporating and superheating of
moisture formed by combustion of hydrogen

when tg < 575 o F

when tg > 575 o F


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BOILER HEAT BALANCE


Q5= energy loss due to incomplete combustion of
carbon to CO

Q6= energy loss due to combustible in refuse

Q7= energy loss due to radiation and unaccounted for


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END OF PRESENTATION