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PHILIPPINES:

L AND AND PEOPLE


LOCATION AND LAND AREA
• Geographically located between (approximately) 4֯ 23’ N and 21֯
25’N and longitude (approximately) 112֯E and 127֯E
• Composed of 7,107 islands, with a land area 299764 sq.
kilometers.
• Three prominent bodies of water surrounded the archipelago:
Pacific Ocean in the east, South China Sea/West Philippine
Sea in the west and north, and the Celebes Sea in the south.
• Total land area of 300,000 sq. km and a coastline of 34,00
km, the longest in the world.
TOPOGRAPHY
• Luzon and Mindanao
– bigger islands, characterized by alluvial plains, narrow
valleys, rolling hills and high mountains.
- highest mountain are found, with an altitude varying
from 1,790 to 3,114 m.
• Most smaller islands are mountainous in the interior,
surrounded by narrow strips of discontinuous flat lowlands.
• Shorelines of both large and small islands are irregular.
CLIMATE
• Normally warm with abundant rainfall and gentle winds.
• Have three pronounced seasons: 1. wet to rainy (June to
Oct.), 2. cool to dry (Nov. to Feb.), 3. hot and dry (March to
May).
• Coolest month is January and the warmest month is May.
• Temperature and humidity levels reach the maximum in April
and May.
TERRITORIAL AND POLITICAL
SUBDIVISION
• Divided into three geological areas: 1. Luzon, 2. Visayas, and
3. Mindanao.
• 17 regions
• 81 provinces
• 118 cities
• 1510 municipalities
• 41995 barangays
VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES
• Have twelve (12) active volcanoes.
• Mount Mayon or Mayon Volcano is renowned as “perfect
cone” because its symmetric conical shape.
• Have eight (8) other volcanoes which also extinct or dominant
have well-preserved cones.
• Earthquakes are frequent and occasionally violent.
• Philippine is located along the pacific ring of fire that’s why
active volcanoes and earthquakes occur.
MINERAL RESOURCES
• Numerous mineral deposits have been discovered but little
has been determined with respect to their value.
• Sub-bituminous coal is widely distributed.
• Gold has been found in small quantities in nearly all
provinces.
• Copper is scarcely less widely distributed than gold.
• Extensive deposits of iron ore is found in the province. of
Bulacan.
• Outcrops of lead in Marinduques considerable silver is
associated with lead.
PLANTS AND FLOWERS
• About 37% of the country is covered by forest or woodland.
• Narra is the country’s national tree.
• Do have numerous species of orchids.
• Abaca or Manila hemp is one of the most valuable indigenous
plant.
• Million of flowers bloom everywhere throughout the year.
• Sampaguita or “Queen of Flowers” is the country;s national
flower.
• Largest flower in the world called “Pangapung” with a
diameter of one foot grown in Mindanao.
ANIMALS
• Most important animals:
-domesticated water buffalo called carabao,
-several species of deer,
-wild and domesticated pigs,
-mongoose, and
-variety of humped cattle.
• Reptiles are numerous
• Contain 760 species of birds including colourful parrots
• Very large flying-squirrels are found in Palawan and
Mindanao.
ANIMALS
• Red or brown deer are found in Basilan, Mindanao, Leyte,
Samar and Calamianes island.
• Have numerous venomous serpents
• Rare animals like tamaraw, mouse deer, tipol is the largest
Philippine bird and second largest eagle in the worlds which
is the “Monkey-Eating Eagle”.
• Philippine eagle is the country’s national bird.
• Dugong (sea cow/pig), marine turtles, the subic fruit bats, and
cockatoo aree among those animals in danger of extinction.
MARINE RESOURCES
• Fishes, especially marine fishes, are numerous and varied.
• About 500 species of food fishes have been found.
• Bangus or milkfish is the country’s national fish.
• Dalag, found in paddy-fields during wet season, is a favorite
with the natives.
• Shells, shellfish, seaweeds and pearls are abundant in fluvial
domain.
• Pearl oysters are abundant in southern part of the
archipelago.
MARINE RESOURCES
• Philippines Glory of the Sea (Connus Gloriamaris) is the
world’s rarest and most expensive shell.
• Worlds largest shell (tridachna gigas) and smallest (pisidum)
is found in the country.
• Philippine of allah holds the Guinness Book of Record to be
the largest pearl in the world weighing 14 pounds.
• Coral beds of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago are of
unsurpassed beauty, and Guimaras, Cebu and Siquijor are
completely covered with a thick cap of coral limestone.
TOURIST SPOTS
• Ifugao Rice Terraces in Northern Luzon
• Taal Volcano
• Hundred islands of Pangasinan
• Chocolate Hills in Bohol
• Mount Makiling, Banahaw, Hibok-Hibok are favorite spots for
mountain trecking.
• Baguio, summer capital of the Philippines
• Maria Christina Falls and Pagsanjan Falls
BEACHES
• Boracay
• Pagudpud
• Mactan Island
• Panglao beach
• Camiguin
• Dakdak Park Beach Resort
• Honda Bay
• Pearl Farm
• Siargao
THE PEOPLE
• The country is marked by a true blend of cultures, truly in the
Philippines, East meets West.
• Background of the people is Indonesian and Malay
• Have Chinese and Spanish elemnts as well.
• American history rule and contract with merchants and
traders culminated in a unique blend East and West, both in
appearance and culture of the people of the Filipinos.
COMMON FILIPINO TRAITS
• Bayanihan or spirit of kinship and camaraderie
• Close family relationship
• Hospitality
• Very religious being
• Respect to elders
OTHER FILIPINO TRAITS
• Utang na loob
• Pakikisama
• Hiya
• Bahala Na
• Individualism
• Amor-propio
• Mamay muna
• Filipino time
• Colonial mentality
• Kumpadre system or palakasan system
FIRST MAN IN THE PHILIPPINES
• Professor Beyer caked the “Dawnmen” (or “cavemen”
because they lived in caves.).
• The Dawnmen resembled Java Man, Peking Man, and other
Asian Home sapiens who existed about 250,000 years ago.
• They did not have any knowledge of agriculture, and lived by
hunting and fishing. It was precisely in search of food that
they came to the Philippines by way of the land bridges that
connected the Philippines and Indonesia.
• Owing perhaps to their migratory nature, they eventually left
the Philippines for destinations unknown.
NEGRITOS
• Dark-skinned pygmies called “Aetas’ or “Negritoes”.
• About 30,000 years ago, they crossed the landbridged from
Malaya, Borneo, and Australia until they reached Palawan,
Mindoro and Mindanao.
• They were pygmies who went around practically naked and
were good at hunting, fishing and food gathering. They used
spears and small flint stones weapons
INDONESIANS – FIRST SEA IMMIGRANTS
• Because of the disappearance of the land bridges, the third
wave of migrants was necessarily skilled in seafaring.
• These were the Indonesians, who came to the islands in
boats.
• They were more advanced than the Aetas in that: they had
tools made out of stone and steel, which enabled them to
build sturdier houses: they engaged in farming and mining,
and used materials made of brass; they wore clothing and
other body ornaments.
MALAYS
• They were believed to have come from Java, Sumatra,
Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula more than 2,000 years ago.
Like the Indonesians, they also traveled in boats.
• The Malays were brown-skinned and of medium height, with
straight black hair and flat noses. Their technology was said
to be more advanced than that of their predecessors.
• They engaged in pottery, weaving, jewelry making and metal
smelting, and introduced the irrigation system in rice planting.

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