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Newton’s formula and

Laplace’s correction
K. R. Niraimathi
Newton’s formula for velocity of sound
Newton assumed that when Sound propagates through air,
temperature remains constant. (i. e. The process is isothermal )
So, bulk modulus of elasticity B = BT = P

Speed of sound through a medium :

If, the density of a medium and pressure acting on the sound
wave ,
1. The speed of sound ( c ) = √P/p
C =speed of sound
P = pressure acting on the sound
p = density of the medium

If the density Increases , the sound velocity slows and Inversely

If, the medium pressure increases the sound velocity accelerates .
Laplace correction
Laplace slightly revised newton ‘s formula By multiplying gamma
to newton ‘s pressure component.
Newton’s formula neglected the influence of heat on the speed
of sound .
laplace shorted the newton’s equation by having , K = gamma . Pressure .
k refers to elastic bulk modulus.

C = √K/p

This formula is called Newton _ Laplace equation .

Discrepancy of Newton’s formula and
Laplace coerrection
Newton assumed that the formation of compression and
rarefaction is very rapid procees also arguded that .
so , the System is adibatic . For adibatic procees ,

PVr= constant

y = Cp/Cv
It’s average value is 1.4 for a diatomic gas.
Differentiating both sides
d(PVr) = d(constant )
PVr + rPVr-1 .dv = 0
(or )
Vr [ dp +rPdv/v] = 0
dP +rpdv/v = 0
rP + dp/dv/v =B
For speed of Sound in a gas medium

C = √ B/p

C = √ rP/ p

This is the speed of Sound in a gas medium corrected by