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Manufacturing Technology

when it comes to technology, it

is best to work on the basics
first, before seriously
considering implementation
of the latest and best in
technology, be it hardware or
consider the following hierarchy:
(1) basics,
 (2) simplification — taking
the basics and making them
work better by simplifying
them and making them
easier to utilize,
 (3) integration — making sure that the
basics in each area of the operations
management/manufacturing system are
working with each other rather than against
each other, (4) focus — making sure that
the basics we are implementing are
consistent with the strategic stance of the
firm, and
(5) technology — after we have done
everything that we can on the
preceding four dimensions, we are
ready and able to successfully
implement technology and take
advantage of it.

In other words, technology should

always come after basics, not before,
Planning a manufacturing systems
Planning is a special activity that is
done before starting the project.
Most things in life workout better
if they are planned . Production is
no exception.
Benefits of Good Planning
Good planning ensures a
smoother production run.
There is less waste of
time, materials and
Production Planning
It is a process used before
production starts.
It refers to establishing the
Production planning gives answer
to five basic questions:
What is to be done?
Who is to do it?
Where is it to be done?
How is it to be done?
When is it to be done?
Planning Stage
 Routing/Loading
 Scheduling
 Routing is commonly understood as the
establishment of the path (direction) that a
specified shipment is to follow
 In production planning , routing means the
establishment of the path of the raw
materials and parts through processing to
finished products.
 It includes the specification of the necessary
work operations and their sequences.
Route sheet
Indicates how the work/job will
move from department to
department and from machine to
machine. It also specifies where
inspections are to take place.
 is the assignment of work to men or
equipment without regard to when the
work will be exactly done.
 It involves specifying when(time) and
in what (operations) sequence the work
will be accomplished.
 Scheduling operations involves
planning the time element in the
production work.
Factors to be considered in
 Delivery requirements for the finished product;
quantities and dates.
 Production capacity of plant facilities and
 Existing work loads, future commitment and
urgency (revealing time for new work )
 Time required for procurements of materials,
purchased parts, tooling and for other preliminary
The amount of materials and parts,
including supplies on hand and
those available for new work.
The time required to perform
individual production operations,
inspection and movement of work.
Pre-requisites for scheduling
 Maintenance of up-to-date records on
the status of existing work loads and
future requirements of work centers
and machines.
 Considerable training of clerical help
entails the maintenance of an effective
communication to provide a
continuous flow
The Basics of Manufacturing

 There are numerous activities and tasks that must be completed

before excellence can be achieved. It also shows that different
groups in the firm are responsible for different activities.
 business planning and sales and operations planning - are
the responsibilities of top management. It is their job to make
sure that the plans pursued by both marketing and
manufacturing are consistent not only with each other, but also
with the corporate strategic plan. Furthermore, they are
responsible for making sure that there are sufficient resources
 (i.e., capacity) present so that these plans can be realistically
executed. Before these plans can go to operations planning, they
must be evaluated for adequacy of resources.
 operations planning stage encompasses
master scheduling (one of the
 most critical manufacturing plans found
within any firm),
 material planning and capacity planning
(to ensure that sufficient materials are
 Operations planning must make sure that
these schedules are consistent with the
strategic plans, as well as with capacity,
inventory, and material lead times.
The Four Operations Pillars of
 These are the tools needed to get the manufacturing
tasks done correctly. These four tools must be
accurate, and they must be complete and current.
Failure to have these pillars in place will prevent
manufacturing from doing its job correctly.
 Following are the four basic tools:
 1. The bill of materials (BoM) is that portion of the
manufacturing database that tells everyone involved
and the systems in place what parts are needed to
build items. We can do no planning, scheduling,
ordering, or order promising unless we know the
status of the required parts for the job.
 2. The route sheet (or router or process
sheet) is that portion of the manufacturing
database that specifies the sequence of
assembly and how long it will take to get a
job done. We cannot promise our customer
a date for receiving their order or know how
to put the
 product together without accurate data from
the route sheet.
 3. Inventory record accuracy answers the first
question you ask yourself when there is a
requirement for a product: “How many do I have?”
If you do not know how many parts you have in
inventory or how many finished goods are
available to ship, then you cannot determine a
delivery date. And we are not talking about
percentage accuracy of
 your inventory. If you have just one record that
does not accurately reflect the amount of materials
or finished good that you have, the credibility of
the entire inventory is in question
 4.Demonstrated capacity is what you
can actually produce and what has
 been demonstrated over time as being
achievable. This is not the place
 to lie to yourself regarding your