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V 

´That the crime be committed in


consideration of a price, reward or
promise.µ

 
Greater perversity of the offender, as
shown by the motivating power itself.
V 

´That the crime be committed by


means of inundation, fire, poison,
explosion, standing of a vessel or
intentional damage thereto,
derailment of a locomotive, or by the
use of any other artifice involving
great waste and ruin.µ
V 

 
has reference to means and ways
employed
V 

´That the act be committed with


evident premeditation.µ

 
has reference to the ways of
committing the crime because evident
premeditation implies a deliberate
planning of the act before executing it
6      
    

à. The time when the offender


determined to commit the crime;

2. An act manifestly indicating that


the culprit has clung to his
determination
6      
    

Ô. A sufficient lapse of time between


the determination and execution,
to allow him to reflect upon the
consequences of his act and to
allow his conscience to overcome
the resolution of his will.
V 

´That (1) craft, (2) fraud, (3) disguise


be employed.µ

 
has reference to the means employed
in the commission of the crime
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here there is a The act of the


direct inducement accused done in
by insidious words order not to
or machinations of arouse the
fraud is present. suspicion of the
victim.
ë     

ë    resorting to any


device to conceal identity
V 

´That (1) advantage to be taken of


superior strength, or (2) means be
employed to weaken the defense.µ
| 
´advantage to be taken of superior
strengthµ

÷ to deliberately use excessive force


that is out of proportion to the
means of self÷defense available to
the person attacked. (People vs.
Lobrigas, et. al., G.R. No. 147649,
17 December 2002)
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ë V6w6
6 !
The element of band The gravemen o f
is appreciated when abuse of superiority is
the offense is the taking advantage
committed by more by the culprits of
than three armed their collective
malefactors strength to overpower
regardless of the their relatively
comparative strength weaker victim/s.
of the victim/s.
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ë V6w6
6 !

èence, what is taken


into account here is
not the number of
aggressors or the fact
that they are armed,
but their relative
physical strength vis-
à-vis the offended
party.
| 

´means employed to weaken


defenseµ
÷ the offender employs means that
materially weakens the resisting
power of the offended party.
V "

´That the act be committed with


treachery (alevosia).µ

 
has reference to the means and ways
employed in the commission of the
crime
  y

There is treachery when the offender


commits any of the crimes against the
person, employing means, methods or
forms in the execution thereof which
tend directly and specially to insure its
execution, without risk to himself
arising from the defense which the
offended party might make.
6      y

à. That at the time of the attack, the


victim was not in the position to
defend himself and;

2. That the offender consciously


adopted the particular means,
method or form of attack employed
by him.
6      y

à. Applicable only to crimes against


persons.

2. Means, methods or forms need not


insure accomplishment of crime.

Ô. The mode of attack must be


consciously adopted.
     yb    

hen the aggression is continuous,


treachery must be present in the
BEGINNING of the assault.
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Ô. There was error in personae hence
the victim was not the one
intended by the accused. (A
different rule is applied in evident
premeditation).
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´That the means be employed or


circumstances brought about which
add ignominy to the natural effects of
the act.µ

 
has reference to the means employed
in the commission of the crime
w y

A circumstance pertaining to the moral


order, which adds disgrace and
obloquy to the material injury caused
by the crime
| 
´which add ignominy to the natural
effects thereofµ

- the means employed or the circumstances


brought about must tend to make the
effects of the crime more humiliating to
victim or to put the offended party to
shame, or add to his moral suffering.
(People vs. Carmina, G.R. No. 81404, 28
January 1991)
   

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V $

´That the crime be committed after


an unlawful entry.µ

 
has reference to the means and ways
employed in the commission of the
crime
 %   y

There is unlawful entry when an


entrance is effected by a way not
intended for the purpose.

* Unlawful entry must be a means to


effect entrance and not for escape.
6      

Ñne who acts, not respecting the walls


erected by men to guard their
property and provide for their personal
safety, shows a greater perversity, a
greater audacity; hence, the law
punishes him with more severity.
 %    y  

à. Robbery with use of force upon


things

2. Trespass to dwelling
V &

´That the means to the commission of


a crime, a wall, roof, floor, or window
be broken.µ

 
has reference to the means and ways
employed to commit the crime
Ú   
V6& V6$

It involves the Vresupposes that


breaking there is no such
(rompimiento) of breaking as by
the enumerated entry through the
parts of the house. window.
V  '
´That the crime committed (1) with
the aid of persons under fifteen years
of age, or (2) by means of motor
vehicles, airships, or other similar
means.µ

 
has reference to the means and ways
employed to commit the crime
%   Ú  

´with the aid of persons under


fifteen years of ageµ

÷ tends to repress so far as possible,


the frequent practice resorted to by
professional criminals to avail
themselves of minors taking advantage
of their irresponsibility.
%   Ú  

´by means of motor vehiclesµ

÷ intended to counteract the great


facilities found by modern criminals
in said means to commit crime and
flee and abscond once the same is
committed.
| 

´or other similar meansµ

÷ should be understood as referring to


motorized vehicles or other efficient
means of transportation similar to
automobile or airplane.
V  
´That the wrong done in the
commission of the crime be
deliberately augmented by causing
other wrong not necessary for its
commission.µ

 
has reference to ways employed in
committing the crime
Ú y

There is cruelty when the culprit


enjoys and delights in making his
victim suffer slowly and gradually,
causing him unnecessary physical pain
in the consummation of the criminal
act.
6   Ú y

à 
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Involves moral Refers to physical


suffering suffering