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PAINT TECHNICAL TRAINING

CORROSION CELL

CURRENT-CARRYING ELECTROLYTE
(SEAWATER, SOIL, ETC.)

ANODE (CORRODING AREA) CATHODE (NONCORRODING AREA)


IONIC PATH
schematic of a corrosion cell

CATHODE ELECTRON ANODE


REACTION PATH REACTION

Corrosion cell will stop if any reaction or path is stopped


NEW PIPE OLD PIPE

ANODE CATHODE

-OTHER CELLS
TANK DRAINAGE

POOR POOR GOOD


PAINT BEHAVIOUR OVER SURFACE IRREGULARITIES

IRREGULARITY PROBLEM CORRECTION

SHARP CORNERS & EDGES INSUFFICIENT THICKNESS GRIND TO 1/4 IN.


MINIMUM RADIUS

FILLET WELD & GRIND


CRACKED OR
TO 1/2 IN. MINIMUM
SPONGY COATING
INSIDE CORNERS RADIUS

INSUFFICIENT THICKNESS
CRACKED
OR SPONGY
GRIND FLUSH

PROJECTIONS
FILL WITH WELD METAL
& GRIND FLUSH

PITS CREVICES
ENTRAPPED AIR
GALVANIC SYSTEM OF CATHODIC PROTECTION

METAL RECEIVING PROTECTION

CURRENT-CARRYING ELECTROLYTE

GALVANIC ANODES
IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEM OF CATHODIC PROTECTION

(-) (+)
RECTIFIER

METAL RECEIVING PROTECTION

CURRENT-CARRYING ELECTROLYTE

REMOTE ANODE GROUND BED


PAINT IS A BARRIER FROM

Sun

Oxygen

Salt

Water
PINPOINT RUSTING

RUSTING WILL OCCUR HERE COATING

STEEL STEEL
INHIBITION BY ZINC PRIMER INHIBITIVE COATING CONCEPT
Break in coating to steel surface Moisture absorbtion into film
(moisture previous coating)

Moisture allows zinc to ionize Ionization of inhibitor


Cathodically protecting steel Reaction with steel surface

Tight adhesion prevents Passive layer


coating undercut

2nd organic 2nd coat


topcoat
1st organic 1st coat
topcoat
ZN ++ Inorganic zinc Inhibitive primer
permanent primer
STEEL STEEL
THREE COMPONENTS OF PAINT

SOLVENT
RESIN
PIGMENT
SOLVENT

VEHICLE RESIN FILM

SOLIDS

PIGMENT
FUNCTION OF PIGMENT

Provide opacity

Provide colour

Improve weather resistance

Increase paint adhesion

Decrease moisture permeability

Control gloss
WET PAINT

VEHICLE PIGMENT

PRIMARY SECONDARY
SOLVENT RESIN
PIGMENT PIGMENT
RELATIONSHIP OF PAINT RESIN/PIGMENT
RATIO TO GLOSS
HIGH-GLOSS SEMI-GLOSS FLAT

SOLVENT* SOLVENT* SOLVENT* WET


PAINT
RESIN
RESIN RESIN

PIGMENT PIGMENT
PIGMENT

RESIN RESIN CURED


RESIN
PIGMENT PAINT
PIGMENT
PIGMENT

CROSS-
SECTION
OF CURED
PAINT
HIGH MODERATE LOW
RESIN/ RESIN/ RESIN/
PIGMENT PIGMENT PIGMENT
* Amount of solvent may vary greatly
A PAINT FILM MUST BE:

Easy to apply
SUBSTRATE

Continuous and uniform

Tightly adhering

Impermeable

Weather resistant
THREE METHODS OF PAINT CURING

Air oxidation

Solvent or water evaporation

Chemical reaction of components


AIR OXIDATION OF PAINTS

LIQUID SOLID FILM OF


OXYGEN
DRYING OIL DRYING OIL
PROPERTIES OF AIR DRYING COATINGS

Generic (chemical) type Properties

Oleoresinous Good wetting; generally soft and slow drying


cannot be used in immersed zone
Alkyd Good wetting; may be hard or soft; cannot be
used in immersed zone
Silicone alkyd Improved durability and gloss; cannot be used
in immersed zone
Phenolic Can be used in immersion service
CURING OF LACQUERS AND WATER EMULSIONS

SOLVENT FUMES
OR WATER VAPOR

SOLID RESIN SOLID RESIN


IN SOLVENT UNCHANGED
OR WATER CHEMICALLY
PROPERTIES OF COATINGS THAT CURE BY SOLVENT
OR WATER EVAPORATION

Generic (chemical) type Properties

SOLVENT BASED COATINGS


Vinyl (polyvinyl chloride) Good water, limited solvent resistance;
easily touched-up or topcoated
Chlorinated rubber Good water, limited solvent resistance;
durable easily touched-up or topcoated
Coal tar and asphaltic Soft; black; of limited use, frequently on
mechanically cleaned surfaces
Polyvinyl butyral Used exclusively in pretreatment (wash)
primers for drying oil and vinyl coatings

WATER BASED COATINGS


Acrylic Used in atmospheric area only; poor wetting
Polyvinyl acetate Same as acrylic
CURING OF PAINTS BY CHEMICAL REACTION

LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID


RESIN A RESIN B RESIN A-B
PROPERTIES OF CHEMICAL REACTING COATINGS

General (chemical) type Properties

Epoxy Good water and chemical resistance; chalk


freely; difficult to topcoat
Coal tar epoxy Excellent water resistance; black only;
difficult to topcoat
Urethane Good water and solvent resistance, aliphatic
urethanes weather well in sunlight; difficult
to topcoat
Polyester Frequently used with glass fibres to give
tough, water resistant coating or glass
flakes to impart abrasion resistance
Inorganic zinc Good abrasion resistance; used in
pre-construction primers; topcoated for use
in immersed zone
COATING PROPERTIES RELATED TO CHEMISTRY

Mechanism and time of curing

Performance in different environments

Performance on different substrates

Compatibility with other coatings


Ease of top coating and repair

Flexibility and toughness

Application properties
(wetting, build, pot life etc.)
THE TOTAL QUALITY OF A COATING SYSTEM

IS ONLY FOR 50% DEPENDING ON THE PAINT

ITSELF.
75% OF PAINT FAILURES ARE CAUSED BY

IMPROPER SURFACE PREPARATION.


SURFACE PREPARATION REQUIREMENTS

Proper construction

Proper degree of cleanliness

Proper profile height (texture)


REPAIRS/MODIFICATIONS REQUIRED BEFORE
SURFACE CLEANING

Steel welding, cutting, grinding of welds


and edges, filling crevices
Wood replacement, cutting, nailing
Concrete/Masonry patching, filling cracks and pores
Plastic cutting, bonding
RULE OF THUMB

The profile height of steel should be between

1/2 and 2 1/2 mills and never more than

one-half the primer dry film thickness


Rz PROFILE VALUE

Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Z5
COMMON METHODS OF CLEANING SURFACES
FOR PAINTING

Hand and power tools

Flame

Solvent

Steam

Water blast

Abrasive blast
FLAME CLEANING

300º F, loosens mill scale, old paint

Follow with wire brushing or scraping

Warms and dries surface

Slow: 15 - 35 linear feet per minute

Wear goggles, gloves, helmet

Remove all sources of flammable gases


SOLVENT WASHING

Removes oil, grease, dust

Use clean rags

Turn and replace often

Replace solvent for final rinse

Wear goggles and gloves


BLASTING HAS LIMITATIONS

Removal oil/grease

Removal thermoplastic materials

Dust problems

Chemical waste
CLEANING METHOD CONTAMINANT
Solvent cleaning Grease / Salt / Dirt
Steam Oil / Weldmarks

Waterblasting Marine growth / Loose paint

Hand or power tools Loose mill scale / Weld flux /


Loose rust / Weld splatter /
Loose paint
Flame cleaning followed Rust
by wirebrushing Loose mill scale /
some tight millscale
Abrasive blasting All visible rust / Tight paint
Tight mill scale / Foreign matter
RECOMMENDED CLEANING METHODS FOR
VARIOUS SUBSTRATES *
Wood sanding after scraping loose paint

Plastic sanding after scraping loose paint

Concrete/Masonry careful waterblasting

Steel abrasive blasting generally preferred over


mechanical cleaning

Aluminium/Tin/Copper/Brass/Galvanized steel

mechanical cleaning or brush off blast;


pretreatment (wash) prime

* Solvent wash to remove oil or grease


CRITERIA FOR COATING SELECTION

Desired coating properties

Nature and condition of substrate

Basic function of coating

Limitations of time, space, equipment, etc

Significant environmental factors


STEEL PAINTING COSTS

SURFACE
PREPARATION
PAINT
APPLICATION

PAINT
MATERIAL

40 - 55% 35 - 45% 10 - 15%


COATINGS COMMONLY USED ON WOOD

Substrate Paint Comments

Interior wood Oil Slow drying and relatively soft


Alkyd May be hard or soft
Latex Can be applied over oil, alkyd or
(vinyl or acrylic) latex primer

Exterior wood Oil Good wetting; slow drying; soft


Alkyd Good wetting; other properties may
vary
Silicone Alkyd Good wetting and gloss
Latex Poor wetting; easily applied and
(vinyl or acrylic) cleaned up
COATINGS COMMONLY USED ON MASONRY AND
CONCRETE SURFACES

Interior masonry, Acrylic latex Easily applied; must remove


plaster, and all loose chalk
wall board Vinyl latex Same as acrylic latex
Chlorinated rubber Good for waterproofing

Exterior concrete, Acrylic latex Fill coats will reduce water


and masonry penetration
Vinyl latex Same as acrylic latex
Chlorinated rubber, Good for waterproofing, for
Vinyl, Epoxy concrete in corrosive
conditions
COATINGS COMMONLY USED ON IRON AND
STEEL SURFACES
Substrate Paint Comments
Interior iron Alkyd Not for immersed surfaces
and steel Vinyl Good water, poor solvent resistance
Epoxy Good durability and chemical
resistance
Urethane Good durability and chemical
resistance
Exterior iron Alkyd For mild and marine environments
and steel Silicone Alkyd Same as Alkyd, better gloss
retention
Inorganic zinc Topcoated with epoxy for
seawater immersion, tankcoatings
Vinyl Good durability, easily touched up
Epoxy Good durability, chalks in sunlight
Urethane Aliphatic type has good weathering
ALKYD

Advantages Disadvantages
One-package coating Poor chemical and solvent
Good exterior durability resistance
Moderate cost Poor water resistance
Good flexibility Poor resistance to
Excellent adhesion to most alkalinity
surfaces, including poorly
prepared surfaces

Easy to apply
Good gloss retention
LATEX (Acrylic or Vinyl)

Advantages Disadvantages
Moderate cost Limited durability outside
Good flexibility Poor chemical and solvent
Easy to apply, topcoat, repair resistance
Environmental acceptability Poor immersion resistance
Curing temperatures must be
above 50º F
BITUMINOUS

Advantages Disadvantages
Low cost Poor weathering properties
Good moisture barrier Black color only
Good corrosion protection Poor solvent resistance
Good film build
VINYL (Acrylic)

Advantages Disadvantages
Rapid drying and recoating Poor solvent resistance
Excellent durability Low film build per coat
Excellent durability
Very good gloss retention
Applicable at low temperatures
CHLORINATED RUBBER

Advantages Disadvantages
Rapid drying and recoating Poor solvent resistance
Fair chemical resistance Poor heat resistance
Good water resistance (158º F)
Poor gloss retention
Good durability
Applicable at low temperatures
Easy to repair
EPOXY

Advantages Disadvantages
Excellent chemical and Two-package coating - limited
solvent resistance potlife
Good water resistance Curing temperatures must be
Very good exterior durability above 50º F
Hard, slick film Poor gloss retention
Excellent adhesion Film chalks on ageing
Excellent abrasion resistance Roughening up required for repair
Good caustic resistance
COAL TAR EPOXY

Advantages Disadvantages
Excellent resistance to Chalking
fresh and salt water Topcoating may present problems
Good film build (tar bleeding)
Excellent resistance to
aliphatic petroleum products
POLYURETHANE

Advantages Disadvantages
Excellent gloss retention Gloss drop with high humidity
Can be applied at low during drying
temperatures Two component - limited pot life
Excellent durability in High cost
exterior exposure Personal protection required
Recoatable
ORGANIC ZINC

Advantages Disadvantages
Excellent corrosion protection High cost
Provides "galvanic" protection Spray application only
Easier to topcoat than inorganic Constant stirring necessary
zinc (less porous) during application
One or two-package depending Not suitable for acidic or
upon organic resin caustic service
Zinc salts to be removed
INORGANIC ZINC

Advantages Disadvantages
Excellent corrosion protection High cost
Excellent exterior durability Spray application only; skilled
Excellent heat resistance applicators required
Provides "galvanic" protection Not suitable for acidic or
properties caustic service
Provides "permanent" primer Requires careful selection of
capability when used in conjunction tiecoats and topcoats
with proper topcoats and/or
Drying influenced by
maintenace practices
humidity - depending on type
Excellent solvent resistance
Constant stirring necessary
FACTORS AFFECTING SELECTION OF
METHOD OF COATING APPLICATION
Characteristic Brush Roller Spray
Speed fair good excellent
Ease of application fair good poor
Simplicity of equipment excellent excellent poor
Safety excellent excellent poor
Material conservation excellent good poor/good*
Portability excellent good poor
Versatility good fair excellent
Initial economics excellent excellent poor
Long range economics fair fair excellent
Hiding power good fair poor/good*
Uniformity poor fair good

* varies with equipment and operator


METHOD
(square feet applied per 8 hour day)
Brush 1.000 sq. ft.

Roller 2 - 4.000 sq. ft.

Air Spray 4 - 8.000 sq. ft.

Airless Spray 8 - 12.000 sq. ft.


THREE FACTORS AFFECT PAINT VISCOSITY

Solvent / solids ratio

Paint temperature

Paint mixing
TEMPERATURE VS. VISCOSITY
80
VISCOSITY (SECONDS)

50

30

20

0
50º 70º 95º 125º

TEMPERATURE ( º F)
MIXING AND THINNING PROCEDURE

One-package paints : type and amount of thinner to be used, if any


Two-package paints : ratio of catalyst to base paint,
induction time, and pot life
PROPER OVERLAPPING TECHNIQUE

Overlap strokes by 50% for uniform film build


PROPER STROKING TECHNIQUE.......
SECTIONING A LARGE SURFACE
18" - 36" 18" - 36" 18" - 36"

4" overlap 4" overlap

Divide a long surface area into sections 18" - 36" wide


PAINT INSPECTION DUTIES

Inspection of materials

Inspection of surface preparation

Inspection of paint application

Final inspection for acceptance


PROPER STORAGE OF PAINT

NO YES
Flames Temperature control
Sparks Stock rotation
Direct sun On pallets
Ventilation
Oil or grease contamination STEEL

Poor adhesion creates areas where


moisture vapour can condense or the
vapour pressure in the void may be
greater than exterior water pressure
causing blisters and eventual coating
disruption
BUBBLE OF TROUBLE
PAINT BLISTER FORMED BY SOLVENT ENTRAPPED BETWEEN COATS

VAPOR FROM SOLVENT TRYING TO ESCAPE

PRIMER COAT TOP COAT


SECOND COAT

STEEL WALL
SURFACE PREPARATION SPECIFICATIONS

SSPC-Guide to Vis 1 Pictorial surface preparation


Standards for painting steel surfaces
SSPC-Guide to Vis 2 Standard method of evaluating degree of
rusting on painted steel surfaces

SSPC-SP 1 Solvent cleaning


SSPC-SP 2 Hand tool cleaning
SSPC-SP 3 Power tool cleaning
SSPC-SP 5 White metal blast cleaning
SSPC-SP 6 Commercial blast cleaning
SSPC-SP 7 Brush-off blast cleaning
SSPC-SP 8 Pickling
SSPC-SP 10 Near-white blast cleaning
APPEARANCE OF THE COMPLETED SURFACE

The surface shall be roughened to a degree


suitable for the specified paint system
The completed surface shall be cleaned to a
grey-white metallic colour. The appearance of
the surface may be affected by the particular
blasting abrasive used
Uniformity of colour may be affected by the grade,
original surface condition, and configuration of the
material being cleaned, as well as by discolourations
from mill or fabrication marks, and the shadowing from
blast cleaning patterns

SSPC-Vis 1 or other visual standards of surface


preparation agreed upon by the contracting parties
may be used to further define the surface
SURFACE PREPARATION SPECIFICATIONS FOR
ABRASIVE BLAST CLEANED STEEL

Surface NACE SSPC-SIS Visual Description


Spec. SSPC-spec. standard
SSPC-Vis 1
White metal 1 SSPC-SP 5 CSa3 Grey-white colour
100% free of oil,
grease, dirt, rust,
mill scale and paint
Near white 2 SSPC-SP 10 CSa2½ Only very light
shadows, streaks or
discolouration.
(At least 95% free)
Commercial 3 SSPC-SP 6 CSa2 At least two-thirds
free of visible
residues

Brush-off 4 SSPC-SP 7 CSa1 Only tight mill scale


and tightly adhering
rust after blasting
FOUR RUST GRADES OF UNPAINTED STEEL

Adherent mill scale

Rusting mill scale

Rusted

Pitted and rusted


HAND
TOOL

POWER
TOOL

COMMERCIAL
BLAST

NEAR WHITE
BLAST

WHITE
BLAST

0 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10

TOTAL COST IN DOLLARS PER SQUARE FOOT


OTHER STEEL STRUCTURES PAINTING COUNCIL
SURFACE PREPARATION SPECIFICATIONS

SSPC Spec.no. Intended use


specification
Solvent cleaning SSPC-SP1 Removal of oil, grease, and other
soluble materials prior to removal
of mill scale, rust, and coating by
other methods
Hand tool SSPC-SP2 Removal of loose mill scale, rust and
cleaning coating by hand sanding, scraping,
chipping or other impact tools
Flame cleaning SSPC-SP4 Preparing unpainted steel with
of new steel oxy-acetylene flame followed by wire
brush removal of loosened mill scale and
rust
Pickling SSPC-SP8 Preparing metal surfaces for coating by
removal of mill scale and rust by
chemical reaction, electrolysis or both
STEEL SURFACE PREPARATION REQUIREMENTS
FOR COMMONLY USED COATINGS

Coating type Minimum surface preparation


Drying oil Hand or power tool cleaning (SSPC-SP2 or 3)
Alkyd Commercial blast (SSPC-SP6)
Oleoresinous Phenolic Commercial blast (SSPC-SP6)
Coal tar Commercial blast (SSPC-SP6)
Asphaltic Near white or commercial blast (SSPC-SP10 or 6)
Vinyl Near white or commercial blast (SSPC-SP10 or 6)
Chlorinated rubber Near white or commercial blast (SSPC-SP10 or 6)
Epoxy Near white or commercial blast (SSPC-SP10 or 6)
Coal tar epoxy Near white or commercial blast (SSPC-SP10 or 6)
Urethane Near white or commercial blast (SSPC-SP10 or 6)
Organic zinc Near white or commercial blast (SSPC-SP10 or 6)
Inorganic zinc White or near white (SSPC-SP5 or 10)
COMPRESSOR HP COMPRESSOR CAPACITY CFM
RATING (electric drive)
15 50 - 70
20 70 - 90
25 90 - 105
30 up to 130
40 up to 170
50 up to 210
60 up to 260
75 up to 320
100 up to 420
NOZZLE PRESSURE CLEANING RATE

100 psi 100 % (Standard for comparison)


90 psi 82 % approx.
80 psi 78 % approx.
70 psi 60 %
60 psi 50 %
PRESSURE LOSS IN AIRHOSE DUE TO FRICTION

HOSE SIZE, LINE CFM FREE AIR PASSING THROUGH 50 FT. LENGTHS
COUPLED PRESSURE 40 60 80 100 120 150
END PSI
LOSS OF PRESSURE PSI*
60 1.2 2.8 5.2 8.6
3/4" 80 0.8 1.9 3.6 5.8 8.8
100 0.6 1.4 2.7 4.4 6.6 11.1
110 0.5 1.3 2.4 3.9 5.9 9.9

60 - 0.6 1.2 2.0 3.3 7.2


1 inch 80 - 0.5 0.8 1.4 2.0 3.5
100 - 0.4 0.6 1.0 1.5 2.4
110 - 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.3 2.1
60 - 0.2 0.3 0.6 1.0
1-1/4" 80 - 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 1.0
100 - - 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.7
110 - - 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6

* Pressure drops for other lenghts in direct proportion to change in length


RULE OF THUMB

Bigger and shorter are the key to blast hose

efficiency.

If a choice must be made between having a short

air hose or a short blast hose, choose

the short blast hose.


RIGHT…… EXTERNALLY-FITTED QUICK COUPLING

WRONG…… INTERNALLY-FITTED COUPLING


RULE OF THUMB

A loss of pressure at the nozzle of only 10 PSI

means a 15% loss in production


RULE OF THUMB

Choose the smallest grain size which can remove

the contaminant on that particular surface.

Bigger is not better here.


RULE OF THUMB

It only takes one spray painter to keep up

with four blasters


AIR SPRAY FEATURES

Finest atomization & finish

Versatile

Easy to use
POWER SOURCE

Electric

Gas

Air
AIRLESS SPRAY FEATURES

Reduced overspray & bounce-back

Increased production

Material savings

Labor savings

Energy savings

Improved coverage
TYPICAL AIRLESS TIP SELECTION

Paint type Orifice size Pressure

Acrylic, modified .013 " tip 2200 psi


Chlorinated rubber .013 2200
Epoxy polyamide .015 2000
Vinyl, copolymer .015 - .017 2000
Epoxy, amine .017 - .021 2200
Phenolic, modified .019 - .025 2200
Antifouling .021 2000
Inorganic zinc .023 - .029 900 - 1800
Organic zinc .026 - .031 900 - 1800
Coal tar epoxy .031 2400
EXTERNAL IONIZATION

CHARGED PROBE
ELECTROSTATIC SPRAY FEATURES

Increased transfer efficiency

Fewer passes

Wrap around edges & irregular surfaces


Lower material usage

Fewer rejects

Reduced labor
(greater productivity)
SAFETY HAZARDS IN PAINTING OPERATIONS

High places

High pressures

Flammable materials

Toxic materials
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN
SURFACE PREPARATION
Acids

Alkalis

Steam

Particulate matter in blasting dusts

Lead and other toxicants from old paint in


blasting dust
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN
PAINT APPLICATIONS
Flammable solvents

Toxic pigments (lead, chromium, etc.)

Toxic or allergic resins (urethane, epoxy, etc.)


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CONCENTRATIONS
OF SOLVENT VAPORS (MAC)
Type of Threshold limit Type of Threshold limit
solvent value (TLV)* solvent value (TLV)*
Acetone 1000 Cyclohexene 400
Alcohols Enamel thinner 200
Butyl 100 Ethylene dichloride 50
Ethyl 1000 Methylene chloride 500
Isopropyl 400 Methylene ketone (MEK) 700
Methyl (Wood) 700 Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) 100
Benzene (Benzol) 25 Mineral spirits 500
Carbon Tetrachloride 10 Naphta, coal tar 200
Cellosolve 200 Naphta, V.M & p. 500
Butyl Cellosolve 50 Perchloroethylene 100
Cellosolve acetate 100 Toluene (Toluol) 200
Methyl cellosolve 25 Trichloroethylene 100
Methyl cellosolve acetate 25 Turpentine 100
Cyclohexane 300 Xylene (Xylol) 200
Cyclohexanone 50

* For 8 hours exposure; PPM by volume in air


RESPIRATORS

Protection from: During:


Dust Sandblasting
Rust, dirt, scale particles Abrasive blast cleaning
Toxic fumes from paints Flame cleaning
or solvents Solvent cleaning
FLASHPOINT AND EXPLOSIVE LIMITS OF PAINT SOLVENTS
Average Explosive limits
flash point % by volume in air
Type of solvent degrees F
Lower Upper
Acetone - 4 2.8 12.8
Alcohol, butyl 115 1.5 11.2
Alcohol, ethyl 60 3.3 19.0
Alcohol, isopropyl 67 2.5 12.0
Benzene (benzol) 12 1.5 8.0
Carbon Tetrachloride none (non-flammable)
Cellosolve 135 2.6 16.0
Cellosolve, acetate 130 1.7 --
Cellosolve, methyl 120 -- --
Cyclohexane 32 1.3 8.0
Cyclohexanone 129 1.1 --
Cyclohexene 22 -- --
Ethylene dichloride 70 6.2 15.9
Methylethyl ketone (MEK) 35 1.8 11.0
Methyl isobutyl ketone (MEK) 75 1.2 9.0
Mineral spirits 105-110 0.7 6.0
Naphtha, V.M. & P. 40-60 0.8 6.0
Toluene (toluol) 45 1.4 6.7
Trichloroethylene none (non-flammable)
Turpentine 95-100 0.8 none
Xylene (xylol) 80 1.0 5.3
GROUNDING

Spray gun

Object being painted


TARGET FOR SAFETY PROGRAM

Complete safety training

Use of safety equipment

Available emergency services

Constant worker vigilance


Chemically Wet coat Beginning Dry coat
drying of paint drying of paint
binder agent (+ solvent (with newly
+ solvent vapour) formed macro-
molecule)

THE SUBSEQUENT CHEMICAL REACTION CAN TAKE PLACE IN


THE FOLLOWING WAYS:
B 1. with the aid of oxygen from the atmosphere
B 2. with the aid of heat
B 3. with the aid of a hardener
B 4. with the aid of a catalyst
B 5. with the aid of moisture from the atmosphere
PHYSICALLY DRYING PAINT
(schematic illustration)

BINDING AGENT + SOLVENT = PAINT

WET COAT OF PAINT DRY COAT OF PAINT


(+ SOLVENT VAPOUR)
SOLVENTS / THINNERS
Generic
type

Aliphatic Petrol )
Bitumen
White spirit )
Aromatic Xylene )
Toluene ) Bit and tar
Naphta's )
Alcohols Methyl-
Ethyl-
Propyl-
Butyl-
Ketones Acetone, MEK, MIBK
Esters Methyl-, Ethyl-
Propyl-, Butyl-
Ethers Glycolethers
TYPE OF PAINTS

Epoxies

Polyurethanes

Chlorrubbers

Vinyls

Alkyds

ACID + ALCOHOL ALCID ALKYD


BINDER FUNCTIONS

Adhesion
Gloss
Viscosity
Protection
weather
water
chemicals
Mechanical properties:
strength
flexibility
hardness
Filmforming
Small molecules Large molecules
low viscosity high viscosity
Small molecules, little binding
Poor film forming capacity

Linear macromolecules. Good binding


good elasticity. Hard at room
temperature, plastic on heating

Thermoplastics Linear macromolecules with a single


cross-linkage. Good binding, good
deformability. Rubbery at room
temperature, on heating sometimes
plastic, mostly unchanged
Elastomers
Net-shaped macromolecules with many
cross-linkages. Good binding, great
robustness, not deformable. Hard at
room temperature, unchanged on heating

Thermosetting plastics