Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 60

# The Six Sigma Way

## A Look at Six Sigma for the

corporate team

1
Who am I?
Dick Kelbaugh; President Route Six Sigma, LLC
 BS INDM Purdue 1965
 MBA Roosevelt University 1974
 US Navy 1965 – 1975: Surface Warfare Officer
 GE Appliances 1977 – 2001
 Manufacturing Engineer
 Manager Range Fabrication
 Coordinator GEA Quality Circles
 Continuous Process Improvement; Process Mapping; Workout
 Certified Master Black Belt
 Six Sigma Training Manager
 Bloomington IN Plant Six Sigma Start up
 Senior Member of ASQ & Certified Quality Engineer
 Board of Directors AQP; Region Director Ohio; Indiana; Michigan and
Kentucky; Chairman, ASQ Louisville Section

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

2
Would you roll the dice on your
Because processes and
their outputs vary,
without a means for
understanding that
variation and controlling
it is like playing the craps
tables at Caesers’.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

3
Can we win by rolling the dice?

## What about the probability that the next roll is a 7?

Probability is 16.7% or odds of 1:6. You only win 4:1 if 7 comes up.

Gamblers will tell you that if you are going to play the
game, you need to first learn the probabilities.
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
4
How Does Rolling the Dice Vary?
7
Chance of rolling “snake eyes”
is pretty small.
6
Rolling a “seven” is pretty high.
5 In fact, with “fair” dice, we can
actually predict that a roll of
4
3 16% (1/6) of the time. An
“eleven” will only be rolled
2 about 5.5% (1/18) of the time.
1 Knowing the probabilities of
rolling a particular number in
0 craps is important to managing
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 the bet.
Likewise, effective use of data in business decision making
helps understand how the business process is performing 5
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
Winning Corporate Models
include Six Sigma
 Motorola – The “Father” Corporation of Six Sigma
 Business future in jeopardy in early 1980’s.
 \$14 Billion in savings booked since 1987
 Kodak - \$85 Million savings by early 2000
 Honeywell – 6% Productivity improvement and record profit margins
 Allied Signal Teams reduced Aircraft Engine design to Certification time
from 42 months to 33 months
 \$600 Million Annual Savings in 1999
 GE – Making the difference for the “Most Admired Company”
 \$200 Million Investment in 1996 training GE people yields \$170M in
savings
 6000 projects “At the Customer, For the Customer” in 2001; 18,000 target
for 2002
 Appliances focus on OTD span reduction has yielded a 70% reduction
 Others include Bombardier; DuPont; Dow Chemical; Federal Express
and American Express
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
6
Six Sigma as a Corporate
Strategy
 Slightly less than ½ of American companies use Six Sigma.
 About ½ of the Six Sigma using companies are manufacturing.
About 40% consider themselves Service companies.
 Slightly over 50% of the Six Sigma using companies employ less
than 5,000 people. About 33% have fewer than 1000
employees.
 Only 25% use Six Sigma as the primary Quality Management
System. 84% use it to improve performance.
 Approximately 22% of the respondents using Six Sigma were
from outside the USA

* Data from survey conducted globally by DynCorp through Benchnet.com to their global
customers. 492 responses from over 170 companies of every size.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

7
Does the strategy work?
Benefit to cost ratio

## Benefit to cost Ratio

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0

00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ne
,0 0 ,0 0 ,0 0,0 ,0 0 ,0 5,0 0,0 No
0 0
00 00 50 25 10 -\$
5
-\$
2 1
1, \$1, -\$ -\$ -\$ -\$
\$ - 0 0 0 0 1
>
0 00 00 00
0 00 00 \$
00 0, 0, 0, 2 5, 1 0,
, 5 0 5 \$ \$
00 \$2 \$1 \$
\$5
Amount Spent on Six Sigma

##  About 77% of surveyed companies measure cost savings and/or profit

increases.
 Six Sigma is used more often for Cost Savings than Profit Increase.
 Benefit claim rate is nearly double the cost for businesses investing over
\$100,000.
 Respondents not using Six Sigma as a program use many Six Sigma
Tools, either as stand alone tools or as part of another QMS.

## * Data from survey conducted By DynCorp globally through

Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003 Benchnet.com to their global customers. 8
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
9
Reduced Cost of Poor Quality is
the Bottom Line Effect
Quality Cost (% Gross Sales)

60%

50%
% Gross Sales

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
2 3 4 5 6
Sigm a Level

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

10
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
11
Agenda
 What is Six Sigma?

 Why Do It?

##  What makes Six Sigma different from other quality

improvement programs?

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

12
What Is Six Sigma?

13
What is Six Sigma

## “Six Sigma is a business system for achieving and

sustaining success through customer focus, Process
Management and Improvement, and the wise use of
facts and data.”
The Six Sigma Way; Peter S Pande; Robert P Neuman;
Roland R Cavanaugh; McGraw Hill

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

14
What is Six Sigma
 A philosophical approach to business
 That focuses on improving critical features of
business products and service to near zero
defects.
 That uses a structured problem solving
methodology with data as an integral part of the
process.
 That focuses improvement on customer defined
needs.
 That recognizes a link between bottom line
results and customer focused improvements.
 A measure of process quality

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

15
What is Six Sigma
 Long term / Short Term Plan
 Bottom Line focused
 Competitive environment focused
 Measured

## “Quality . . . is the next opportunity for our

Company to set itself apart from its competitors . . .
Jack Welch, CEO, GE 1995

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

16
What is Six Sigma
 A strategic approach to business that focuses on
improving critical features of business products and
service to near “zero defects”.
 Instantaneous process quality measurement (1.25 per billion)
 3.4 defects per million opportunities (long term
 3 sigma is equivalent to one defect in 15 pages of text. Six
Sigma would be equivalent to one defect in 300,000 pages.

Excellent
Poor Process Process
Capability Capability
Very High Very High Very Low Very Low
Probability Probability Probability Probability
of Defects of Defects of Defects of Defects

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

17
99%- Personal Excellence;
Corporate Failure
 99% on a test is a sure fire winner.
 99th percentile is considered world class in most
everything we do.
 But 99% means
• 3,000 misdeliveries for every 300,000 letters delivered
• 1.7 million pieces of first class mail lost each day.
 No electricity, water, or heat for about 15 minutes each
day.
• At least 200,000 wrong drug prescriptions would be given
out each year.
• Out of every 100 takeoffs and/or landings there would be
one failure.
Could you live comfortably in an environment
where satisfaction rate was only 99%?
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
18
Six Sigma: A Goal

30.85% 1 691,500
69.15% 2 308,537
93.32% 3 66,807
99.38% 4 6,210
99.977% 5 233
99.99966% 6 3.4
* Defects per million opportunities

## Defect levels decrease exponentially as process

capability, measured in values of sigma, increases
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
19
Six Sigma Example -- GOLF
Y = Par Golf Game
Defect = Three putts or greater on any hole
1 Round = 18 holes
Two sigma 3 -putt < 6 holes each round

## Six sigma 3 -putt once every 16,400 rounds

Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
What is Six Sigma
 A flexible system of gaining, and sustaining,
problem solving processes with data.
 What data or information do we really need?

##  How do we use that data or information to maximize

the bottom line benefit?

##  How do we structure our problem solving to enable

us to find proactive opportunities for process
improvement.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

21
What is Six Sigma
 An philosophical approach to business that focuses on
customer defined needs.
 Let the “Voice of the Customer” define what “quality” is.
 Customers generally feel variation in process output as well as
average.
 Focus on who pays the bills and what will delight them.
 Being “good” doesn’t bring loyalty.
 Customer requirements change.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

22
What is Six Sigma
 Focus on key business processes and key customers
 Define customer driven “Critical to Quality” elements
 Measure current performance against customer
ROUTE
requirements.
 Analyze process to determine critical inputs and controls
which most influence the quality of the output.
 Determine how to improve the process output by
changing the critical inputs
 Implement improvements and define a system for
sustaining the process at a new level.
 Seek opportunities for extending the six sigma lessons
learned to other processes

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

23
The Link Between Six Sigma and
Lean Manufacturing
 Lean manufacturing focuses on reducing
the time from customer order to
delivery.
 It does this by elimination of non-value
added waste in the production stream.
 Reduction of cycle time and removal of
are not primarily associated with the Six
Sigma process, rather defect reduction is
the focus.
 In the commercial Six Sigma project, a
common project goal includes cycle time
reduction, or cycle time variation
reduction.
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
24
An Integrated Approach Is Best
The prime differences in Lean and Six Sigma include focus and tool
complexity.
 Focus
 Lean Manufacturing focuses on process cycle time or process
throughput efficiency.
 Six Sigma focuses on the interrelationship between process inputs
and the process output.
 Six Sigma projects commonly focus on improving process output quality.
 Six Sigma projects can include projects with a process cycle time or throughput
efficiency.
 Tool Complexity
 Lean Manufacturing commonly uses team problem solving and
process logic to identify possible solutions.
 Six Sigma commonly uses data and data analysis methodologies to
prove system interrelationships.

## The Six Sigma approach taught by Route Six Sigma is an

integrated approach using Lean and Six Sigma methods
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
for process improvement. 25
Cycle Efficiency Improvement
Benefits
 Increasing process cycle efficiency from 5 – 25% will allow
reduction of overhead and quality cost by 20%.
 Benefits of high process cycle efficiency include reduced
WIP, ease of identifying defects, reduced labor, associated
 Other benefits may include reduction in space committed to
process, reduced inventory, reduced touches and reduced
distances.
 Focus on the 20% of the process steps responsible for 80%
of the cycle time delays (Pareto Principle).
 Use Process Mapping and Six Sigma methods for understanding and
eliminating these delays.
 Seek out the time traps, the points where non-value added steps are
involved or the process is in a delay status.
 Project Y is Cycle Time

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

26
The Six Sigma Change
 Six Sigma uses a mix of familiar and new improvement
methods
 Six Sigma is flexible to adapt to the organization culture if
the organization culture is flexible enough to adapt to Six
Sigma
 Six Sigma focuses on three internal targets
 Lowering cost
 Increasing Productivity
 Increased Profitability
 Six Sigma must impact the needs and wants of the loyal
customer.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

27
Why Six Sigma?

28
Why do Six Sigma?
 Improved process understanding
 Competitive process output quality
 Customer satisfaction
 Productivity
 Profitability

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

29
Why do Six Sigma?
Inputs (X) Outputs (Y)

Process

Y  f (x)
 Improved process understanding
 Shifts focal point for control of process from process output to
process inputs.
 Helps develop clearer definition of customer related outputs.
 The process is the key vehicle for business success.
 Develops definitive relationships between inputs and outputs.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

30
Understanding the process
 If all we ever look at is
the output, we miss Inputs Outputs
gaining the knowledge
needed to permanently Products,
change the output. services or
 If we are going to tasks
improve the output, we Process
must first understand Inputs, together
the process. with effort to
achieve the
 Deming called it desired output
“profound knowledge”.
 To gain that knowledge,
we need to be able to
measure the process and Inputs include materials, method,
know how to interpret machinery, manpower, policies and the
the measurements. environment.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

31
The Process Approach of Six Sigma

Y= F(x)
Output Input

Effect Cause

Dependent Independent

Capability Variation

## Focus on understanding the input rather than just the output

Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
32
Process Outputs are a Function
of Inputs
 Mean Stack Ups Inputs (X) Outputs (Y)

##  Variation Stack Ups Process

 Transfer Function
Y  f (x)
Gas Mileage = f(speed;idle time;engine tune,…)

## While not basic statistical practices these are well

within the grasp of even the non - technical graduate
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
33
Why do Six Sigma?
 Set the competitive benchmark for your
 What are the features you offer that if done at world class
levels will differentiate you from your competitors?
 This isn’t a single performance, just as winning the
Kentucky Derby Winner doesn’t guarantee long term horse
racing prominence.
 Customer needs and expectations are dynamic.
 Secretariat will be remembered in the racing business as
much for the colts he sired as for winning the Triple
Crown.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

34
Why do Six Sigma?
 Customer Satisfaction
 Businesses are measured by customers everyday.
 Customer Satisfaction comes through sensing the
significant improvement in, or excellence of, those features
the customer explicitly considers prior to selecting your
product or service.
 Focusing on Critical to Customer process characteristics is
the only way to manage customer satisfaction.
 You likely cannot improve customer satisfaction through
reactive problem correction.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

35
The Customer View Defines
Outside-In Thinking

## We understand and view the internal process

but
The customer understands the product or service as it satisfies their need
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
Why Do Six Sigma?
 Productivity
 As you move from reactive quality assurance to
proactive process management, there are significant
reductions in demand for inspection, rework and
product over production.

##  In service businesses; cycle time reductions and

reduced touch time are prime contributors to

##  In GE Appliances, productivity gains have been critical

to maintaining profitability in an appliance marketplace
where prices have been flat to falling over the past

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

37
Why Do Six Sigma?
 Profitability
 Properly planned and implemented, Six Sigma benefits
will improve bottom line results in both the short term
and long term.
 Short term benefits are realized through cost reductions.
 At 3 Sigma quality levels, quality costs often run in the
range of 25 - 30% of Sales Revenue.
 At 6 Sigma quality levels, experience shows that this cost
can be expected to decrease to about 5%.
 GE’s experience has been that the cost of doing 6 Sigma
is free, because the bottom line benefits exceed the
implementation and training costs.
 In every year since 1996 (Six Sigma’s first year), GE Six
Sigma related cost reductions have outpaced Six Sigma
related costs.
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
38
What Makes Six Sigma Different
From Other Programs?

39
What Makes Six Sigma Different From
Other Quality Improvement Programs

 Focus
 Active Corporate Leadership and Participation
 Visibility
 Investment in Resources
 Technical Skills
 Communications / Expectations
 Customer Focus
 Bottom Line Contribution

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

40
What Makes Six Sigma Different
 Focus
 Specific Project scope versus default business wide application

 Customer Needs
 Specific and Measurable

##  Bottom Line Contribution

 Specific and Measurable

## Let “Customer Needs” drive.

Do what makes the best sense for the business.
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
41
What Makes Six Sigma Different
 Active Executive Leadership and Participation
 Active involvement in establishing and achieving goals
 Bob Galvin – Motorola
 Jack Welch – GE
 Championing
 Clearing Barriers
 Personal Commitment
 To Learn
 To Demand
 To Reward

## Experience shows that this is the hardest part,

and the most important to success.
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
42
What Makes Six Sigma Different
 Visibility
 Executive engagement in Project Reviews

## Visibility is where the rubber meets the road

between the executive office and the trenches.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

43
What Makes Six Sigma Different
 Investment in Resources
 Training in Skills
 Methodology
 Project Management
 People
 Infrastructure / Systems

## This is the bottom line challenge. Balance the benefits

of doing Six Sigma with the cost of doing Six Sigma.
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
44
What Makes Six Sigma Different
 Communications
 Targeted to include all associates at the needed level of
understanding
 Repeated
 Energized
 Expectations
 Success must be defined in measurable terms and included in the

## Communications and Expectations will be the

fuel to keep the culture moving.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

45
Implementing Six Sigma

46
Where Do We Start?

##  What should we be working on?

 Scrap and Rework in general?
 Inefficiency in General
 Return?
 Dissatisfied Customers

##  Start at the heart of your business and focus externally.

 Who are your key customers?
 What do you want to accomplish with Six Sigma?

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

47
 What are the major activities through which we provide
value to our customers?

##  What are the primary outputs of this process? What

product or service do we deliver?

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

48
 Key Customers are those whose needs must be met for
this product / service to be successful.

##  For our core process, who are the Key Customers?

 External Customers – Customers from outside the business
 Internal Customers – Customers within the business
process

## Are all customers equally important?

Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
49
Identifying Cost Drivers
 Process
 Rework Operation Yield
 Scrap End of Line
 Inefficiency Rolled Throughput

Output
Returns
Service Data and
Field Repairs
Customer Feedback
Dissatisfied Customers
Lost Customers

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

50
Don’t Over Evaluate Here!!
huge. Use estimates.

##  Knowing how much you’ll save will only be a guess until

someone actually starts analyzing the problem.

##  You won’t be able to work on everything, and the choice of

improvement projects will significantly impact early success
and financial benefit of the initiative.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

51
What Do You Want to
Accomplish With Six Sigma?
 Problem Solving – Fix problems currently affecting the

##  Strategic Business Improvement – Look for opportunities

within the business where application of Six Sigma can

to one that embraces use of data based decision making.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

52
Expectations for a Successful
Launch
 There is a strong business case for Six Sigma.
 Active leadership participation in implementation
 Leadership vision for Six Sigma and a realistic marketing
plan.
process.
 Establish clear, measurable objectives and hold people
accountable for meeting those objectives
 Demand solid, bottom line results.
 Communicate results internally and externally

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

53
There Is a Strong Business Case
for Six Sigma
 Would you invest in Humve’s for your entire staff just
how they are the hot new SUV type car?
 Any decision to invest in a new process, such as Six
Sigma needs to be driven by expected corporate
benefits that most everyone can understand.
 In a tight business market, quality of our goods
and services can be a marketplace differentiator.
 In a cost / price based market, cost reduction is
the next step in increasing margin.
 In a fully utilized factory, increased yield is
needed to maintain output without additional
investment.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

54
 He / She has to sell it.
 He / She has to defend it
 He /She will need to be able to modify the plan as times change
 Clearly, at GE, Six Sigma was Jack Welch’s program.
 Jack delegated authority to run the program to his various
 At ViaSystems, Tim Conlon has committed the corporation
to making this philosophical change in the way of doing

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

55
Establish Clear, Measurable Objectives
and Hold People Accountable

##  Measurements of success and performance

screens make expectations clear throughout the
organization and reinforce the culture change.
 At GE, Six Sigma performance is on every
exempt annual review.
 Six Sigma projects have a goal of 90% defect
reduction.
 Every trained GB is expected to deliver two
projects annually.
results and benefits goals included on annual
variable compensation screens.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

56
What information is
on the Focus wall of your
corporate war room?

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

57
My job is to find great ideas,
exaggerate them, and spread them like hell
around the business with the speed of light.
Jack Welch

## • Jack was the top advocate of Six Sigma at GE.

We felt it every day.
• Over 3400 GE Appliances people trained in Six Sigma over five
years.
• 100% of GE Exempt trained in that period.
• Over 2000 people certified in Six Sigma Tools.
• Six Sigma Savings became part of the standard operational
measurements for cost and productivity.
Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003
58
Vision and Marketing Plan
 “6 Sigma by 2000” was the GE theme in 1995.
 By 1999, it had changed to “Helping Customers feel the
impact of Six Sigma Quality”
 A vision or “sound bite” about “what the program is”, is
vital to effective communication.
 Not only is the vision important, but having a plan for
marketing it to the company also enables change.
 At the front end of any program, you are in a “sell” scenario.
 A good sell strategy is to make the plan appealing to the team, and
challenging to energize change.
 The marketing plan must be realistic and not seen as sloganeering.

## Copyright Route Six Sigma, LLC 2003

59
This Is Just the Beginning
 Improving business processes is an ongoing part of doing
 Sometimes process redesign is the most appropriate
method for improving outputs.
 The driver for significant business change can only be the