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Formulation and manufacturing methods

for paints and coatings:

Formulation and methods for manufacturing of

For exterior and interior house design
Paint technology is a course in which one studies
about various ingredients used in the making
of paint.
Various ingredients :
pigments, solvents, binders(resins) and additive
Pigment is a solid substance dispersed throughout the
coating to impart it a color & opacity.

• Pigments may protect the substrate from UV light.

• Pigments change the paint appearance (gloss level) a

nd properties: increase hardness and decrease ductili
• Pigments may be natural, synthetic, inorganic or orga
• Fillers and extenders are also referred to pigments. Fi
llers and extenders are non-expensive commonly nat
ural inorganic materials added to the paint in order t
o increase its volume, to increase the paint film thick
ness, to impart toughness or abrasion resistance to t
he coating.
Various Pigments commonly used:
• Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is a white synthetic inorganic
pigment existing in two crystalline forms: rutile and a
natase. Titanium dioxide has high refractive index (an
atase 2.52, rutile 2.76).
• Anatase is photochemically active but provides clear
white color therefore its main application is in interio
r paints.
• Photochemically inert rutile is used for protection of
paints from degradation by light. Titanium oxide is th
e most widely used pigment.
• Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is a white synthetic inorganic pi
gment having refractive index 2.01.
• Zinc Yellow (Yellow 36) is Zinc Chromate (ZnCrO4)
• Yellow Dyes are stable yellow non-toxic organic pi
gments with good opacity
• Benzidine Yellows are yellow-to-red organic pigm
ents for interior applications. They are resistant in
chemicals and stable at elevated temperatures (u
p to 300°F / 150°C).
• Chrome Oxide Green is olive-green inorganic pigmen
t with a high level of opacity. Chrome Oxide Green is
the most stable green pigment.
• Phthalocyanine Green imparts green-blue color. It is
used as the pigment for decorative applications. The
pigment is resistant to heat, solvents and alkalis.
• Phthalocyanine Blues are widely spread pigments. T
hey provides a wide spectrum of color from reddish-
blue to yellowish-green. The pigments are non-toxic
and resistant to solvents, chemicals and elevated tem
• Ultramarine Blue is natural pigment made of t
he semiprecious mineral lapislazuri. The pigm
ent is resistant to fading. It is stable at elevate
d temperatures.
• Vermilion is a natural orangish red pigment co
nsisting of toxic mercuric sulfide (HgS).
• Pigment Brown 6 is red inorganic pigment bas
ed on Iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3).
• Red 170 is a synthetic organic pigment widely use
d in automotive industry.
• Dioxazine Violet is organic synthetic pigment.It is
non-toxic and has high tinting strength.
• Carbon Black is the pigment obtained from organ
ic materials (wood, bones) by charring (thermal d
ecomposition in a limited amount of Oxygen). Lar
ge quantities of Carbon Black are used for colorin
g and reinforcing automobile tires.
• Iron (II) Oxide (FeO) is inorganic black pigment.
• Examples of fillers and extenders:
• Quartz sand (SiO2). Finely ground quartz is a filler
increasing the abrasion resistance of the paints.
• Talc having the lamellar structure serves as a reinf
orcing phase in the coating. Talc also protects the
substrate from the penetrating water.
• Baryte (BaSO4) is a colorless or white inorganic m
ineral having high hardness and chemical resistan
ce. It is used as a reinforcing additive.
• Kaoline Clay is a natural colloid containing finely
dispersed particles of hydrated aluminum silicate.
Kaoline Clay is used in emulsion paints as a gloss r
educing additive.
• Limestone (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) is used in
emulsion paints as a filler extending expensive pig
 Solvent (water or organic solvent) is a medium wher
e the binder, pigment and additives are dispersed i
n molecular form (true solutions) or as colloidal disp
ersions, solvent is what causes the paint to be ‘wet’.

 Solvents (thinners) are also used for modification of t

he paint viscosity required for the application metho
ds: brush, roller, dip, spray.
 The solid coating is formed due to evaporation
of solvent therefore the evaporation rate is one o
f the important properties of solvents. Other imp
ortant properties are the ability to dissolve the pa
int ingredients and toxicity.
Various solvents used:
• Water
• White spirits (mineral turpentine spirits). White
spirit is a mixture of is a mixture of saturated alip
hatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons.
• Xylene is a pure aromatic solvent having benzene rin
g structure in its molecule (C8H10).
• Toluene is also a pure aromatic solvent with be
nzene ring structure (C6H5CH3).
• Alcohols (n-butanol, isopropanol) are organic c
ompounds having a hydroxyl groups (-OH) boun
d to the carbon atoms of an alkyl group.
• Ketones is an organic solvents, in which carbony
l group (C=O) is bonded to two other carbon ato

• Binder is the main ingredient of paints. Binders are p

olymers (resins) forming a continuous film on the sub
strate surface.
Binders are responsible for good adhesion of the coa
ting to the substrate. The binder holds the pigment p
articles distributed throughout the coating. The bind
er is dispersed in a carrier (water or organic solvent e
ither in molecular form (true solutions) or as colloidal
dispersions (emulsions or sols).
Common binders used:
• Alkyd resins are prepared by the condensation polyme
rization in the reaction of fatty acid and polyols (comm
only glycerol) with polybasic acids.
• Acrylic resins are prepared by polymerization of acrylic
or methacrylic esters.
• Latex (PVA) is a vinyl polymer prepared by free radical
vinyl polymerization of the monomer vinyl acetate.
• Phenolic resins are thermosetting polymers prepared b
y the reaction of simple phenol with aldehydes (eg. for
• Urethane resins (polyurethanes) are prepared by
the step-growth polymerization of isocyanates re
acting with monomer molecules containing hydro
xyl (alcohol) groups.
• Epoxy resins is a thermosetting polymer formed
as a result of cross-linking a resin containing short
molecules in the presence of a hardener.
• Chlorinated rubber is prepared through polymeri
zation of the degraded natural rubber (in the pres
ence of atoms of chlorine participating in cross-li
Additives are small amounts of substances mo
difying the paint properties.
Various additives used:
• Driers accelerate the paints drying (hardening)
by catalyzing the oxidation of the binder.
• Plasticisers increase the paints flexibility.
• Fungicides, Biocides and Insecticides prevent
growth and attack of fungi, bacteria and insect
• Flow control agents improve flow properties.
• Defoamers prevent formation of air bubbles e
ntrapped in the coatings.
• Emulsifiers are wetting agents increasing the c
olloidal stability of the paints in liquid state.
• UV stabilizers provide stability of the paints u
nder ultra-violet light.
• Anti-skinning agents prevent formation of a sk
in in the can.
• Adhesion promoters improve the adhesion of
the coating to the substrate.
• Corrosion inhibitors reduce the corrosion rate
of the substrate.
• Texturizers impart textures to the coatings.
Exterior of the house

The exterior of the any house is generally expos

ed to the temperature changes, different weat
her conditions,moisture contents,direct sunlig
ht,rain water and regular wear and tear.
• Therefore any exterior paint must be tougher
and resist peeling, chipping, and fading from s
Exterior of the house
• For these reasons, the resins used in binding e
xterior paints must be softer.
Interior of the house
• Interior paint is made to be scrubbed, resist st
aining, and allow cleaning.
• for interior work oil-based paints are not usual
ly used. The reason is their odor and difficulty
to clean-up.
• For interior paint where temperature is not a
problem, the binding resins are more rigid, wh
ich cuts down on scuffing and smearing
Interior of the house
• For an indoor surface, you may need to clean
and scrub, choose a glossy finish interior paint
, as they resist scrubbing better than flat surfa
ces, which can smear
Paints for wood
• When paint is applied to wood it will fill superf
icial cavities in the rough surface and the medi
um will tend to enter the cell spaces.
• In order to maintain a constant pigment/binde
r ratio in the dry primer film,a proportion of p
olymerized oil or varnish is added to it
• The adhesion of paint film to wood depends o
n good wetting of surface by paint.
Paints for wood
• The durability of a paint system is influenced by t
he ability of the system to accommodate the dim
ensional changes in the wood caused by absorpti
on and loss of moisture.
• Two essential properties adhesion and elasticity a
longwith moisture permeability are important.
• Leadless primers on a number of media including
oleoresinuous varnishes,alkyds and urethane oils
are now manufactured.
Paints for wood
• Non toxic pigments and extenders are employed to giv
e primers suitable for both interior & exterior wood.
• The primers employed are quick drying types applied b
y spray or dip.
• Formulation of general type:
Titanium dioxide 17%
Paris white 11.8%
Red oxide of iron 2.9%
Medium (50% solids) 67.7%
Driers 0.6%
Paints for wood
• Aluminium primers give a superior moisture b
arrier & provide a more suitable surface for th
e adhesion of subsequent coats
• Suitably pigmented acrylic emulsion primers
are non toxic,flexible & adhere well to wood surf
For hardwoods Al primers based on epoxy esters
or urethane oils are good
Finishing system for wood
• Conventional alkyd type primer,undercoat & finis
h are commonly used.
• Water-based paints for interiors protect the wood
against scratches and marks, and can be washed
with neutral detergents in an acqueous solution.
• They can be applied to indoor furnishings and oth
er wooden items (chairs, doors, tables, kitchen ca
binet doors, baseboards/skirting boards, etc.).
Finishing system for wood
• Acrylic emulsions give excellent performance
• Gloss paints are the most resistant to damage
and the easiest to clean.
• Gloss or semi-gloss paints are ideal for windo
w trim and doorframes, while semi-gloss is a g
ood choice for exterior doors.
• Eggshell finish exterior paint, also often called
satin finish, is well suited to wood.