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Automation

 A machinery that has sensing and


control devices that enables it to
operate automatically
 It also offers a number of
advantages over human labor like
reduction of variable cost
Fixed Automation
 The most rigid
 Detroit type of automation
 It uses high-cost, specialized equipment for a
fixed consequences of operations.
Fixed Automation
PRIMARY ADVANTAGE
 Low cost and high volume
PRIMARY LIMITATIONS
 Minimal variety and the high cost of making
major changes in either product or process
Programmable Automation
 Opposite end of the spectrum
 It involves the use of high-cost, general-
purpose of equipment controlled by the
computer program that provides both the
sequence of operations and specific details
about each operation
Programmable Automation
Numerically Controlled Machines
(N/C)
machines that perform operations by
following mathematical processing instructions
Programmable Automation
Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
the use of computers in process control
Programmable Automation
Computerized Numerical Control
(CNC)
individual machines may have their own
control
Programmable Automation
Direct Numerical Control (CNC)
one computer may control a number of
N/C machines
Programmable Automation
Robot
 A machine consisting of a mechanical arm, a
power supply, and a controller
 They can be powered pneumatically,
hydraulically, or electronically
Flexible Automation
 evolved from programmable automation
 uses equipment that us more customized
that that of programmable automation
 requires significantly less changeover time
 this permits almost continuous operation of
equipment and product variety without the
need to produce in batches
Flexible Automation
Manufacturing Cell
 one or few N/C machines that produce a wide
variety of parts
Flexible Automation
Computer Integrated Manufacturing
(CIM)
 a system for linking a broad range of
manufacturing activities through an
integrating computer system
Flexible Automation
Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)
 a group of machines designed to handle
intermittent processing requirements and
produce a variety of similar products
Process Selection
 Requires engineering expertise
Process Selection
Long-run
 Hire or promote manager who have
both managerial and technical skills
and expertise
Short-run
 Managers must work with technical
experts
Process Selection
Reasons to choose flexible systems
1. Demands are varied/Uncertainty
exists about demand
2. Improved forecasting
Capacity
 Refers to an upper limit or ceiling on
the load that an operating unit can
handle.
 It can be a plant, department,
machine, store, or worker.
Basic Question in
Capacity Planning
1. What kind of capacity is needed?
2. How much is needed?
3. When is it needed?
Importance of Capacity
Decisions
 Has an impact on the ability of the
organization to meet future demands for
products and services
 Affects operating cost
 Usually a major determinant of initial cost
 Involve long-term commitment of resources
 Affect competitiveness
Defining and Measuring
Capacity
 Has an impact on the ability of the
organization to meet future demands for
products and services
 Affects operating cost
 Usually a major determinant of initial cost
 Involve long-term commitment of resources
 Affect competitiveness
2 Useful Definition of Capacity
• Design Capacity
the maximum output that can possibly be
attained
• Effective Capacity
the maximum possible output given a
product mix, scheduling difficulties, machine
maintenance, quality factors, and so on.
less than design capacity
2 Measures of System
Effectiveness
• Efficiency
the ratio of actual output to effective
capacity
• Utilization
the ratio of actual output to design
capacity
2 Measures of System
Effectiveness
• Efficiency
𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡
𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 =
𝐸𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦
• Utilization
𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡
𝑈𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑧𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 =
𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦
Improving Capacity Utilization
Increase effective capacity by:
 Correcting quality problems
 Maintaining equipment in good condition
 Fully training employees
 Fully utilizing bottleneck equipment
Determinants of Effective
Capacity
 Facilities Factors
 Product/Service Factors
 Process Factors
 Human Considerations/ Human Factors
 Operational Factors
 External Factors
Determining Capacity Requirements
 Long term considerations relate to overall
level of capacity (facility size)
 Short term conditions relate to probable
variations in capacity requirements created by
such things (seasonal, random, irregular
fluctuations in demand)
Determining Capacity Requirements
Long term capacity needs
forecasting demand over a time horizon
converting those forecast into capacity
requirements
Complex patterns such as a combination of
cycle and trends
Determining Capacity Requirements
Long term capacity needs
When trends are identified, the fundamental
issues are
1. How long the trend might persist
2. The slope of the trend
Determining Capacity Requirements
Long term capacity needs
If cycles are identified, interest focuses on
1. Approximate length of the cycles
2. Amplitude of the cycles
Determining Capacity Requirements
Short term capacity needs
Less concerned with cycles and trends
More concerned with seasonal variations and
other variations from average
Determining Capacity Requirements
Short term capacity needs
Identify seasonal patterns using standard
forecasting techniques
Seasonal patterns are also reflected in
monthly, weekly, and even daily capacity
requirements
Determining Capacity Requirements
Short term capacity needs
Service Systems
may experience considerable amount of
variability in capacity requirements unless
request for service can be rescheduled
Manufacturing Systems
the more uniform of production, are less
likely to experience variations
Determining Capacity Requirements
Irregular Variations
 most troublesome
Virtually impossible to predict