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MATH TRIVIA

MATH TRIVIA
MATH TRIVIA
MATH TRIVIA
CARD GAME
HERE’S A BOX OF NUMBERS THAT ENABLE YOU TO CARRY OUT SOME
TRICKS. ASK FRIEND TO THINK OF A NUMBER UP TO 63. THEY MUST
KEEP IT TO THEM SELVES AND NOT TELL YOU. ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW
IS THE NUMBER IN THE BOX IN WHICH NUMBER APPEARS,
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15

17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31

33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47

49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63

CARD 1
2 3 6 7 10 11 14 15

18 19 22 23 26 27 30 31

34 35 38 39 42 43 46 47

50 51 54 55 58 59 62 63

CARD 2
CARD 3

4 5 6 7 12 13 14 15

20 21 22 23 28 29 30 31

36 37 38 39 44 45 46 47

52 53 54 55 60 61 62 63
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47
56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

CARD 4
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

CARD 5
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47
48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55
56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

CARD 6
AT THE END OF THIS CHAPTER, THE
STUDENTS IS EXPECTED TO:
1. APPLY INDUCTIVE AND
DEDUCTIVE REASONING TO
SOLVE PROBLEMS;
2. SOLVE PROBLEMS INVOLVING
PROBLEM PATTERN AND RECREATIONAL
PROBLEMS FOLLOWING
SOLVING AND POLYA’S STRATEGIES.
REASONING 3. ORGANIZE ONE’S METHOD
AND APPROACHES AND
SOLVING PROBLEM.
INDUCTIVE AND
DEDUCTIVE REASONING
 The type of reasoning that
forms a conclusion based
on the examination of
INDUCTIVE specific example called
inductive reasoning. The
REASONING conclusion formed by using
inductive reasoning is a
conjecture, since may or
may not be correct.
Use inductive reasoning to predict the next
number in each of the following lists,

a. 3,6,9,12,15,? EXAMPLE 1: USE


OF INDUCTIVE
b. 1,3,6,10,15,? REASONING TO
PREDICT A
c. 5,10,15,20,25,? NUMBER.

d. 2,5,10,17,26,?
Consider the following procedure: Pick a number.
Multiply the number by 8, add 6 to the product,
divide the sum by 2, and subtract 3. EXAMPLE 2: USE
INDUCTIVE
REASONING TO
Complete the above procedure for several MAKE A
different numbers. Use inductive reasoning to CONJECTURE
make conjecture about the relationship between
the size of the resulting number and the size of
the original number.
Earthquake Maximum
EXAMPLE 3 Magnitude Tsunami Height
(meters)
 Use the data in the table and by 7.5 5
inductive reasoning, answer the
following question below.
7.6 9
 A. If the earthquake magnitude is 8.5,
how high (in meters) can the tsunami
be?
7.7 13
 Can a tsunami occur when the 7.8 17
earthquake magnitude is less than 7?
Explain your answer. 7.9 21
 Conclusion based on inductive reasoning may not
always be true. In other words, a conjecture formed
by using inductive reasoning may be incorrect. This
method of disproving a statement is to give a
counterexample.
EXAMPLE 4

 Verify that each of the following statement is incorrect by


giving a counterexample .
𝑥
a. =1
𝑥
b. 𝑥 2 ≥ 𝑥
c. 𝑎 + 𝑏 ≥ 𝑎 + 𝑏
 A type of reasoning that used
general conclusion by
DEDUCTIVE
REASONING
applying general assumption,
procedures, or principles to
reach a conclusion.
 Use deductive to make a
conjecture.
 Consider the following
EXAMPLE 5 procedure. Pick a number.
Multiply the number by 10,
add 8 to the product, divide
the sum by 2 and subtract 4.
 Each of the four friends Donna, Sarah, Nikkie, and
EXAMPLE 6 Xhanelle, has a different pet (fish, cat, dog, and snake).
From the following clues determine the pet of each
individual.
1. Sarah is older than her friend who owns the cat and
younger than her friend who owns the dog.
2. Nikkie and her friend who owns the snake are both of
the same age and are the youngest members of their
group.
3. Donna is the older than her friend who owns the fish.
EXAMPLE 7

Each of four neighbors, Lovely gets home from work after the
Honey, Lovely, Sweet, and banker but before the dentist.
Candy, has a different Sweet, who is the last to get home from
occupation (editor, work, is not the editor.
banker, chef, or dentist). The dentist and Sweet leave for work at the
From the following clues, same time.
determine the occupation The banker lives next door to Candy.
of each neighbor.
PROBLEM
SOLVING WITH
PATTERNS
TERMS OF A SEQUENCE

 An ordered list of numbers such as


5,14,27,44,65,…
Is called a sequence. The numbers in a sequence that are
separated by commas are the term of the sequence. It is
customary to use subscript notation 𝑎𝑛 to designate nth
term of a sequence.
EXAMPLE 8  Use difference table to predict
table the next term in the
sequence.
2, 7, 24, 59, 118, 207, …
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

 Use difference table to


predict table the next
term in the sequence.

1,14, 51,124, 245, 426, …


EXAMPLE 9. FIND THE NTH-TERM FORMULA
What is the nth-term formula for the
number tiles in the figure of the
sequence?

How many tiles are in the eight figure of


QUESTIONS the sequence ?

Which figure will consist of exactly 320


tiles?
EXAMPLE 10
What is the nth-term formula for the
number tiles in the figure of the sequence?

How many tiles are in the twelfth figure of


QUESTIONS the sequence ?

Which figure will consist of exactly 551


tiles?
EXAMPLE 11
What is the nth-term formula for the
number tiles in the figure of the sequence?

How many tiles are in the tenth figure of


QUESTIONS the sequence ?

Which figure will consist of exactly 419


tiles?
POLYA’S PROBLEM
SOLVING STRATEGY
Ancient mathematicians such as
George Polya (1887 – 1985). He
Euclid and Pappus were
was born in Hungary and moved
interested in solving
to the United States in 1940. The
mathematical problems, but they
basic problem-solving strategy
were also interested in heuristics,
that Polya advocated consisted of
the study of the methods, and
the following steps.
rules of discovery and invention.
POLYA’S FOUR-STEP PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGY

1. UNDERSTAND 2. DEVISE A PLAN 3. CARRY OUT 4. REVIEW THE


THE PROBLEM THE PLAN SOLUTION
UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM.

THIS PART OF POLYA’S FOUR-STEP STRATEGY IS OFTEN OVERLOOKED. YOU MUST HAVE A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF THE
PROBLEM. TO HELP YOU FOCUS ON UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM, CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.

Is there missing
Can you restate the Can you determine
information that, if
problem in your own what is known about
known, would allow you
word? these type of problems?
to solve the problem.

Is there extraneous
information that is not
What is the goal?
needed to solve the
problem?
Make a list of the known information.
CAN YOU RESTATE THE
Make a list of information is need.
PROBLEM IN YOUR OWN
WORD? Draw a diagram
CAN YOU DETERMINE
WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT Make an organized list that shows all the possibilities
THESE TYPE OF PROBLEMS?
IS THERE MISSING Make table or chart
INFORMATION THAT, IF Work backward
KNOWN, WOULD ALLOW
YOU TO SOLVE THE Try to solve a similar but simpler problem
PROBLEM.
IS THERE EXTRANEOUS Look for a pattern
INFORMATION THAT IS NOT
NEEDED TO SOLVE THE Write an equation. If necessary, define what each variable represents.
PROBLEM? Perform experiment.
WHAT IS THE GOAL?
Guess at a solution and check your result.
Work carefully
CARRY OUT THE
PLAN
Keep accurate and neat record
ONCE YOU HAVE
of all your attempts
DEVISED PLAN,
YOU MUST
CARRY IT OUT. Realize that some of your existing plans will
not work and that could apply to devise
another plan or modify your existing plan
01 02 03
Ensure that the solution Interpret the solution in Ask yourself whether
is consistent with the the context of the there are generalizations
facts of the problem. problem. of the solution that could
apply to other problems.

REVIEW THE SOLUTION

ONCE YOU FOUND A SOLUTION, CHECK THE SOLUTION


EXAMPLE 12
A First Avenue

 Consider the map


shown in the figure.

Crest Boulevard
Gateway Boulevard
Second Avenue

River Walk

Board Walk
Allison wishes to walk
along the streets from

Park Avenue
point A to B. How many
Third Avenue
direct routes can
Allison take?
Fourth Avenue B
EXAMPLE 13

 A baseball team won


two out of their last four
games. In how many
different orders could
they have two wins and
two losses in four
games?
EXAMPLE 14

 In a basketball league consisting


of 10 teams, each team plays
each of the other teams exactly
three times. How many league
games will be played?
EXAMPLE 15

 Determine the digit 100 places to the right


of the decimal point in the decimal
7
representation .
27
In consecutive turns of a
Monopoly game, Stacy first paid
Php. 800 for a hotel. She then lost
half her money when she landed
on Boardwalk. Next she collected
EXAMPLE 16 Php. 200 for passing GO. She then
lost half her remaining money
when she landed on Illinois
Avenue. Stacy now has Php. 2500.
How much did she have just before
she purchase the hotel?
 In how many ways can you answer a 12-question
true-false if you answer each question with either
a “true” or a “false”.

EXAMPLE 17
EXAMPLE 18  Determine the unit digit
(ones digit) of the counting
number represented by the
exponential expression.
a. 4300
b. 2725
c. 7146
EXAMPLE 19

(33 )
 How many times as large is 3 than 33 3 ?